MENGGAMBAR WAYANG 1-2

  • Senin, September 30th 2013

WAYANG 1-2
(HASIL PENELITIAN DIJADIKAN BUKU, BERTUJUAN
UNTUK MEMPERMUDAH BELAJAR MENGGAMBAR WAYANG BALI.
BAGI MAHASISWA FSRD ISI DPS DAN MASYARAKAT UMUM BAGI YANG BERMINAT)
Oleh : I Gusti Ngurah Agung Jaya CK, SSN. M.Si. NIP.196880516 199802 1 001
FAKULTAS SENI RUPA DAN DESAIN PS KRIYA PRODUK
INSTITUT SENI INDONESIA DENPASAR 2012
A. Sejarah Berkembangnya Seni Lukis Wayang di Bali
Bila kita amati perjalan sejarah seni lukis wayang Bali, maka akan diawali dengan asal mula manusia purba, dalam perjalanannya banyak ditemukan bukti-bukti peninggalan berupa keahlian nenek moyang kita melukis didinding-dingding goa. Di Bali peninggalan gambar lukisan digoa-goa belum ada diketemukan, tetapi gambar-gambar yang terdapat pada sebuah nekara dan relief dinding ada ditemukan seperti Di pura Nekara pejeng dan relief yeh pulu dan goa gajah. Adanya peninggalan ini membuktikan bahwa karya seni yang berkembang di Bali sudah ada sejak jaman dahulu dan masih berkembang sampai saat ini (Gung Tjidera, 1995: 11).
Melihat perkembanganya, sekarang seni lukis wayang Bali , diakui kebedaradanya sejak jaman pra-sejarah. Buktinya banyak ditemukan pada gedong kuno penuh hiasan (Nekara) yang berada dipejeng. Nekara berbentuk genderang yang bagian pinggirnya berhiasakan ragam hias yang berkembang saat itu (Neka Museum, 1986: 8).
Pada jaman raja-raja di Bali, Kerajaan yang terkenal pada saat itu adalah Pemerintahan Ugrasena (818 Icaka/ 896 Masehi). Hal ini dibuktikan pada prasasti “Prabhwayang” pada pemerintahan Raja Anak Wungssu (1045-1047) disebut “Aringgit” (Goris, 1954: 3).
Kedua Istilah itu berarti “Wayamg”, merupakan perkembangan lanjutan dari gambar dan relief yang berkembang sebelumnya. Dalam kitab Insulinda karangan Dr Setyabudi, wayang Bali diperkirakan sudah berkembang pada jaman Raja Sidodana (tahun 518-630 masehi). Hal ini disebutkan pula pada prasasti Bebetin dalam Buku Parasasti Bali satu oleh Dr Relof Goris, turunan prasasti Bebetin halaman 44-45 berbunyi seperti ini. “… Pande tembaga, pemukul, pegendeng, pabunying, papadaha, parbhangci, pertapukan, parbhwayang… turun di Panglapuran di Singamandawa, di bulan besakga caka pancami, rggas bwijaya manggala, di caka 818…”. Artinya sebagai berikut “ pande tembaga, pemukul gambelan, penyayi, pemukul bunyi-bunyian dari bambu, pemukul kendang, peniup seruling, penari topeng, dalang wayang… turun dipanglipuran di singamandawa, pada bulan 10, hari ke 5, patorang, hari pasar wijaya manggala, pada tahun 818 caka…” ( Callenfels, 1926: 12)..
Pada sat itulah diperkirakan seni lukis Bali telah ada. Kemungkinan sudah ada gambar wayang sebagai media sosial budaya dan sudah dikonsepkan dalam bentuk wayang kulit. Selain itu dalam babad Dalem di Desa Gelgel, Sri Dalem Semara Kepakisan, pernah pergi ke Majapahit dan pulang membawa hadiah dari Keraton Majapahit, berupa keris Bengawan Canggu, ikat pinggang Sebuh Jagat dan sekeropak wayang kulit(Musium Bali, 1989: 13). Pada Abad 14 Pemerintahan di Bali, pindah dari Samprangan ke Gegel, kesenian wayang semakin mendapat pembinaan dan mengalami perkembangan. Runtuhnya Keraton Gelgel ke tangan I Gusti Agung Maruthi dari Kekuasaan Dalem Dimade, membangkitkan semangat putra-putranya untuk merebut kembali Keraton Gelgel. Setelah kekuasaan di pegang oleh Dewa Agung Jambe, pusat pemerintahan di pindahkan ke Semarapura Klungkung. Pada masa itu pula kesenian mengalami puncak keemasan. Raja Dewa Agung Jambe memanggil I Gede Mersandi seorang warga desa Kamasan untuk melukis. Oleh karena indahnya hasil karya I Gede Mersandi, maka raja memberikan hadiah sebidang tanah dan tempat tinggal dan mendapat gelar I gede Modara pada tahun 1771(Kanta, 1978: 35). Hasil karya I Gede Mondara lebih dikenal dengan nama lukisan wayang gaya Kamasan. Gaya lukisan ini menyebar keseluruh Bali dan dikenal dengan nama lukisan Bali klasik. Pemerintah mengabadikan nama I Gede Modara di taman budaya Denpasar yaitu “Mahandra Mandara Giri Bhuana” yang artinya Modara terkenal di Bali dari dahulu, kini dan masa yang akan datang (Museum Bali, 1940: 2). Berkuasanya penjajah Belanda, hampir diseluruh Indonesia tak terkecuali Bali. Pada tahun 1908 adalah awal komunikasi Bali dengan daerah luar. Orang-orang Belanda yang begitu terkesan dengan keindahan dan keunikan ragam seni dan budaya Bali. Menjadikan Bali sebagai objek pariwisata. Pada tahun 1926, salah satu orang asing yang bernama Walter Spies yang menetap di Ubud, dan seorang pelukis Rodolf Bonnet ke Bali tahun 1928. Kedatangan kedua seniman asing ini memberikan nuansa seni barat yang sangat kental dengan bentuk anatomi plastisnya. Pada saat itu seni lukis wayang Ubud berbentuk dekoratif dengan sentuhan kedua seniman barat tersebut menjadi lukisan wayang Ubud lebih realis dan tetap dengan atribut wayang tetap dipakai sebagai kekuatan lokal ginius (Moerdowo, 1967: 8). Pada tahun 1936, kedua seniman barat tersebut bersama-sama Cokorda Gde Agung Sukawati, mendirikan “Pita Maha” sebagai wadah berkumpulnya seniman Ubud, dengan tujuan Mempromosikan , meningkatkan mutu dan membantu pemasaran hasil karya pelukis yang ada di Ubud (Neka, 1986: 9). Melihat perjalanan seni lukis wayang Bali sudah ada sejak dahulu dan sampai sekarang tetap bertahan dan lestarai, selain itu kegiatan adat istiadat keagamaan yang ada di Bali sebgaia alat untuk mempertahankan seni lukis wayang Bali. Selain itu seni lukisan wayag berkembang pula di daerah tabanan yang dikenal dengan lukisan gaya Kerambitan, begitu juga di Jembrana ternekal dengan kain pengider-ider yang bergambarkan wayang gaya Jembrana, di Buleleng terkenal dengan lukisan kaca yang bergaya Nagasepaha.Tema cerita diambil dari cerita pewayangan mahabharata, Ramayana dan cerita rakyat Bali, yang berhubungan dengan masyarakat Bali.

B. PROSES MENGGAMBAR WAYANG BALI
1. Pembuatan Kanvas (Nganjinin/Mubuhin. Kain blacu dengan ukuran yang telah ditentukan, kain dicuci
kemudian dijemur sampai setengah kering. Kain diremas dan dicelupkan ke dalam bubur (tepung beras
yang sudah matang) dijemur sampai kering. Tujuan semua ini adalah untuk menutupi pori-pori kain.
Selanjutnya kain tersebut di gosok (digerus) secara bertahap diatas lempengan papan dan digososk dengan
kerang(bulih- bulih) sampai rata dan halus.
2. Seketsa(Ngereka) adalah cara mengkomposisikan tokoh-tokoh wayang yang akan digambar, kemudian
membuat bentuk global wayang dan atribut wayang dipakai wayang, dan menebalkan seketsa wayang
dengan tinta hitam
3. Pewarnaan adalah memberikan warna secara keseluruhan. Adapun teknik pewarnaanya adalah dengan
memberikan warna yang bergradasi ( warna muda kewarna lebih tua/ dari terang kegelap) Tujuannya
untuk memberikan efek yang lebih tinggi terang dan makin kedalam semakin gelap. Hal ini dilakukan
disebuah objek wayang. Hal ini yang menyebabkan proses menggambar wayang menjadi lama. Setelah
itu dilanjutkan memberikan warna hitam pada masing-masing pinggir dari seluruh badan wayang,
untuk memberikan kesan volume pada semua badan wayang.
4. Nyawi adalah memberikan ketegasan pada masing-masing garis wayang dan ornamen yang digunakan
Secara keseluruhan, sehingga gambar wayang lebih mempertegas bentuk wayang secara keseluruhan.
Selanjutnya memberikan aksen terakhir yaitu pecahayaan pada beberapa permata yang ada pada ornamen
wayang untuk memberikan kesan hidup.

C. PROPORSI MENGGAMBAR WAYANG
1. Proporsi Rentet adalah bentuk wayang pendek-pendek yang diterapkan pada media daun lontar yang bisa
disebut parasi.
2. Proporsi Nyepek adalah bentuk wayang hampir sama dengan ukuran manusia, biasanya digambar pada
media kain kanvas.
3. Proportsi Lanjar yaitu bentuk wayang dibuat panjang-panjang sesuai dengan bidang yang lebar dan panjang,
seperti lanse, kober dan umbul-umbul.

D. TEKNIK MENGGAMBAR MUKA WAYANG
Contoh: D.

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E. HIASAN PADA KEPALA WAYANG (GELUNGAN)
Ada 10 gelungan wayang, dimana masing-masing ada namanya sesuai dengan nama Wewaran di Bali
(dasawara: pandita, pati, suka, duka, sri, manuh, manusa, raja, dewa dan raksasa.

E.1. Gelungan Pandita/Ketu adalah gelungan yang digunakan pada tokoh resi Drona, Bisma dan Narada.
Contoh: E.1.

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E.2. Gelungan Pati/Supit Urang adalah delungan seperti capit udang, yang digunakan pada tokoh kesatria Bima,
Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadewa dan Hanoman.
Contoh:E. 2.

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E.3. Gelungan Suka/ Kekendon adalah delungan yang dipergunakan oleh tokoh wayang Aswatama, Wilmana,
Garuda dan yang lainnya.
Contoh: E.3.
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E.4. gelungan Duka/ Pakis Rebah adalah gelungan yang digunakan oleh tokoh wayang Abimayu.
Contoh:E. 4.
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E.5. Gelungan Sri/Papudakan /Candi Rebah adalah gelungan yang dipergunakan oleh tokoh wayang Salya,
Duryodana dan yang lainnya.
Contoh: E.5.
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E.6. Gelungan Manuh/Kekeling yaitu gelungan yang dipergunakan oleh Darma wangsa/Yudistira.
Contoh: E.6.
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E.7. Gelungan Manusa/ udeng-udeng yaitu gelungan yang dipergunakan oleh Panakawan, Bala-bala dan rakyat.
Contoh: E. 7.
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E.8. Gelungan Raja/ Candi Kurung yaitu gelungan yang dipergunakan oleh tokoh wayang Karna, Betara Ciwa,
Dasarata dan yang lainnya. Contoh 8.

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E.9.Gelungan Dewa/Candi Kusuma yaitu gelungan yang dipergunakan oleh tokoh wayang Dewa, Baladewa,
Kresna, Rahwana dan sebagainya.
Contoh: E. 9.
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E.10. Gelungan Raksasa/ Bok Gambah yaitu gelungan yang dipergunakan oleh tokoh raksasa, cupak dan
lainnya. Contoh: E,10.
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F. PROSES MENGGAMBAR BADAN WAYANG
Contoh F.
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G. PROSES MENGGAMBAR KAKI WAYANG
Contoh G.

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H. BENTUK KESELURUHAN WAYANGI
Contoh H.

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I. BENTUK TOKOH WAYANG PADA WUKU
Wuku adalah hari baik buruk waktu, untuk melakukan kegiatan seperti hari kelahiran, bercocok tanam,
memelihara binatang, membuat senjata, membuat rumah dan lain sebagainya. Masing- masing wuku ada
Dewa yang mempengaruhinya. Tokoh dewa pada wuku ini berbentuk gambar wayang.

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J. Contoh penerapan warna pada salah satu tokoh wayang.

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K. Contoh wayang yang di terapkan pada media kain bludru dan kain kanvas modern, Karya I Gusti Ngurah Agung Jaya CK

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L. Contoh seketsa wayang  pada sebuah kain.

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M.Contoh wayang Kamasan

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N. Contoh karya Kolaburasi antara Dosen dan Mahasiswa ISI-dps pada tembok panggung terbuka, Koordinator Bapak Yasana.

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Callenfels, P.V. Van Stein. 1926. Epigraphie Balica I. V.B.E. Kolf & Co.
Goris, Roelof. 1954. Prasasti Bali I. Bandung: N.V. Masa Baru
Kanta, Made. 1978. Seni Lukis Wayang Kamasan. Denpasar: Sasana Budaya Bali.
Moerdowo, R.M. 1963. Seni Budaya Bali. Surabaya: Fajar Bakti.
Musium Bali. 1940. Katalog Museum Bali. Denpasar.
Stuteja Neka. 1986. Museum Neka Ubud. Gianyar.
Tjidera, Gung Wayan. 1995. Wujud Pisik dan Falsafah Lukisan Wayang Bali. Denpasar:UNUD
Tjidera, Gung Wayan. 2007. Lukisan Wayang Bali. Denpasar:UNUD.

 

 

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