instrument angklung bambu

April 21st, 2013

A.ANGKLUNG BAMBU

Alat Musik dari Bambu Asli Indonesia – Bambu adalah tanaman yang sudah dikenal di masyarakat dunia. Di Indonesia sendiri terdapat sekitar 60 spesies bambu yang dapat kita temui dari sekitar 1000 spesies bambu yang ada di dunia. Karena bahan bambu yang sangat mudah ditemukan di alam Indonesia dan sifat bambu yang mudah dibentuk, ringan serta awet, tidak heran jika bambu banyak dipergunakan untuk berbagai keperluan. Dari mulai senjata (bambu runcing), bahan bangunan, bahan kerajinan dan tidak sedikit yang dijadikan sebagai alat musik. Alat musik dari bambu asli Indonesia ini berasal dari berbagai daerah di Indonesia. contohnya alat musik angklung :

B.Asal-usul

Anak-anak Jawa Barat bermain angklung di awal abad ke-20.Tidak ada petunjuk sejak kapan angklung digunakan, tetapi diduga bentuk primitifnya telah digunakan dalam kultur Neolitikum yang berkembang di Nusantara sampai awal penanggalan modern, sehingga angklung merupakan bagian dari relik pra-Hinduisme dalam kebudayaan Nusantara.Catatan mengenai angklung baru muncul merujuk pada masa Kerajaan sunda(abad ke-12 sampai abad ke-16). Asal usul terciptanya musik bambu, seperti angklung berdasarkan pandangan hidup masyarakat Sunda yang agraris dengan sumber kehidupan dari padi (pare) sebagai makanan pokoknya. Hal ini melahirkan mitos kepercayaan terhadap Nyai Sri Pohaci sebagai lambang Dewi Padi pemberi kehidupan (hirup-hurip). Masyarakat Baduy, yang dianggap sebagai sisa-sisa masyarakat Sunda asli, menerapkan angklung sebagai bagian dari ritual mengawali penanaman padi. Permainan angklung gubrag di Jasinga, Bogor, adalah salah satu yang masih hidup sejak lebih dari 400 tahun lampau. Kemunculannya berawal dari ritus padi. Angklung diciptakan dan dimainkan untuk memikat Dewi Sri turun ke bumi agar tanaman padi rakyat tumbuh subur.
Jenis bambu yang biasa digunakan sebagai alat musik tersebut adalah bambu hitam (awi wulung) dan bambu putih (awi temen). Tiap nada (laras) dihasilkan dari bunyi tabung bambunya yang berbentuk bilah (wilahan) setiap ruas bambu dari ukuran kecil hingga besar.
Dikenal oleh masyarakat sunda sejak masa kerajaan Sunda, di antaranya sebagai penggugah semangat dalam pertempuran. Fungsi angklung sebagai pemompa semangat rakyat masih terus terasa sampai pada masa penjajahan, itu sebabnya pemerintah Hindia Belanda sempat melarang masyarakat menggunakan angklung, pelarangan itu sempat membuat popularitas angklung menurun dan hanya di mainkan oleh anak- anak pada waktu itu. elanjutnya lagu-lagu persembahan terhadap Dewi Sri tersebut disertai dengan pengiring bunyi tabuh yang terbuat dari batang-batang bambu yang dikemas sederhana yang kemudian lahirlah struktur alat musik bambu yang kita kenal sekarang bernama angklung. Demikian pula pada saat pesta panen dan seren taun dipersembahkan permainan angklung. Terutama pada penyajian Angklung yang berkaitan dengan upacara padi, kesenian ini menjadi sebuah pertunjukan yang sifatnya arak-arakan atau helaran, bahkan di sebagian tempat menjadi iring-iringan Rengkong dan Dongdang serta Jampana (usungan pangan) dan sebagainya.
Dalam perkembangannya, angklung berkembang dan menyebar ke seantero Jawa, lalu ke Kalimantan dan Sumatera. Pada 1908 tercatat sebuah misi kebudayaan dari Indonesia ke Thailand, antara lain ditandai penyerahan angklung, lalu permainan musik bambu ini pun sempat menyebar di sana.Bahkan, sejak 1966, Udjo Ngalagena tokoh angklung yang mengembangkan teknik permainan berdasarkan laras-laras pelog, salendro, dan madenda mulai mengajarkan bagaimana bermain angklung kepada banyak orang dari berbagai komunitas.

C.Pengertian Angklung

Angklung adalah alat musik multitonal (bernada ganda) yang secara tradisional berkembang dalam masyarakat berbahasa Sunda di Pulau Jawa bagian barat. Alat musik ini dibuat dari bamboo , dibunyikan dengan cara digoyangkan (bunyi disebabkan oleh benturan badan pipa bambu) sehingga menghasilkan bunyi yang bergetar dalam susunan nada 2, 3, sampai 4 nada dalam setiap ukuran, baik besar maupun kecil. Angklung terdaftar sebagai Karya Agung Warisan Budaya Lisan dan Nonbendawi Manusia dari UNESCO sejak November 2010.

D.Teknik Permainan Angklung

Memainkan sebuah angklung sangat mudah. Seseorang tinggal memegang rangkanya pada salah satu tangan (biasanya tangan kiri) sehingga angklung tergantung bebas, sementara tangan lainnya (biasanya tangan kanan) menggoyangnya hingga berbunyi. Dalam hal ini, ada tiga teknik dasar menggoyang angklung:
• Kurulung (getar), merupakan teknik paling umum dipakai, dimana tangan kanan memegang tabung dasar dan menggetarkan ke kiri-kanan berkali-kali selama nada ingin dimainkan.
• Centok (sentak), adalah teknik dimana tabung dasar ditarik dengan cepat oleh jari ke telapak tangan kanan, sehingga angklung akan berbunyi sekali saja (stacato).
• Tengkep, mirip seperti kurulung namun salah satu tabug ditahan tidak ikut bergetar. Pada angklung melodi, teknik ini menyebabkan angklung mengeluarka nada murni (satu nada melodi saja, tidak dua seperti biasanya). Sementara itu pada angklung akompanimen mayor, teknik ini digunakan untuk memainkan akord mayor (3 nada), sebab bila tidak ditengkep yang termainkan adalah akord dominan septim (4 nada).
Sementara itu untuk memainkan satu unit angklung guna membawakan suatu lagu, akan diperlukan banyak pemusik yang dipimpin oleh seorang konduktor. Pada setiap pemusik akan dibagikan satu hingga empat angklung dengan nada berbeda-beda. Kemudian sang konduktor akan menyiapkan partitur lagu, dengan tulisan untaian nada-nada yang harus dimainkan. Konduktor akan memberi aba-aba, dan masing-masing pemusik harus memainkan angklungnya dengan tepat sesuai nada dan lama ketukan yang diminta konduktor. Dalam memainkan lagu ini para pemain juga harus memperhatikan teknik sinambung, yaitu nada yang sedang berbunyi hanya boleh dihentikan segera setelah nada berikutnya mulai berbunyi.

E. Tangga nada musik angklung

19Angklung Diatonis merupakan perkembangan dari Angklung Buhun yang bertangga nada Pentatonis seperti Angklung Buncis, Angklung Baduy dan Angklung Gubrag yang sudah sejak lama terdapat di Tatar Sunda ini. Terciptanya Angklung Diatonis ini di pelopori oleh seorang putra dan ahli musik Tatar Sunda kelahiran Garut yaitu Bapak Daeng Soetigna (Alm). la berguru kepada Bapak Jaya dad Kuningan, yaitu seorang ahli pembuat Angklung.

Angklung adalah sejenis alat musik yang terbuat dari bahan bambu. Jenis bambu yang di pergunakannya adalah : Awi (bambu)Taman, Awi Wulung, Awi Belang, dan Awi Tali. Tetapi untuk Angklung yang lebih besar ada juga yang mempergunakan Awi Surat.

Demikian sebagaimana tercantum dalam buku Daeng Soetigna bapak Angklung Indonesia tulisan Helius Sjamsudin dan Hidayat Winitasasmita yang di keluarkan oleh Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional Jakarta 1986.

Waditra yang di pergunakannya terdiri:

Angklung Melodi, yaitu nada¬ nada Angklung yang fungsinya melantunkan melodi, yang terdiri atas:

Melodi tidak bernomor, jumlahnya ada 11 yaitu: 5 nada dari to (tangga nada ) Oktaf Besar (Baskan) ditambah 6 nada dad to Oktaf Kecil (Diskan) (G – Gis – A – Ais – B – C – cis- d-dis-e-dan f ) . Angklung Melodi Besar ini tidak diberi nomor, cukup di bed nama nada mutlaknya pada masing-masing tabung nadanya yang letaknya vertical atau pada tabung dasarnya yang letaknya horizontal. Dengan demikian jelas bahwa pada Angklung Pa Daeng nada Angklung terendah adalah G dad tangga nada Oktaf Besar (Baskan).

Melodi Bernomor jumlahnya ada 31, mulai dad fis Oktaf kecil sampai dengan C”. (c3). Angklung Melodi Kecil ini di bed nomor dari nomor 0 = fis tadi sampai dengan nomor 30 = c3 dengan jarak 1/2 nada (kromatis). Dengan demikiarf jelas pada Angklung Pa Daeng, luas oktaf dari yang terendah sampai dengan yang tertinggi : 3 1/2 oktaf.

Angklung Akompanyemen, terdiri atas:

A) Akompanyemen Mayor 12 buah dan Minor 10 buah yaitu

– Akompanyemen Mayor terdiri dari A7 – Bes7 – B7 – C7 – Cis7 – D7 – Es7 – E7 – F7 – Fis7 – G7 – As7

– Akompanyemen Minor terdiri dari: Am – Besm – Bm – Cm – Cism – Dm – Em – Fm – Fism – Gm.

B) Ko – Akompanyemen, jumlahnya sama dengan Akompanyemen, namun ukurannya Iebih kecil dari Akompanyemen.

Fungsi Angklung Akompanyemen ialah sebagai pengiring seperti halnya Gitar. Pengiring yang memainkan Akor¬akor sesuai kunci lagu atau seperti fungsi tangan kiri pada permainan Piano. Antara Akompanyemen dan Ko – Akompanyemen saling mengisi sebagai penguat dan ritmis yang membedakan jenis lagu yang di lantunkan seperti pada Keroncong, Cha-cha, Dangdut dan lain sebagainya.

Nada-nada Angklung Melodi yang dipergunakan yakni dari yang paling rendah G sampai yang tertinggi C’’’

G Gis A Ais B c cis d dis e f fis

5 nada 6 nada

dari oktaf besar dari oktaf kecil

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