DESKRIPSI KENDANG BARONG

April 21st, 2013

Kendang  barong

Buku yang sampul depan bergambarkan kepala barong dan sosok seseorang yang memangku sebuah kendang yang pada mulanya adalah publikasi skripsi I Gede Made Sadguna ini membahas berbagai aspek, umumnya tentang Seni Karawitan Bali dan khususnya tentang kendang bebarongan. Kendang merupakan salah satu instrumen musik yang universal, karena hampir di seluruh belahan dunia dipastikan memiliki alat musik yang tergabung dalam alat musik perkusi. Di Bali kendang tidak bisa dipisahkan dari seni karawitan dimilikinya. Dalam buku ini disebutkan bahwa instrumen kendang terdapat pada gamelan golongan madya, yang berfungsi sebagai peminpin dari sebuah barungan gamelan.

Selanjutnya terdapat pada gamelan golongan baru, yang memiliki peranan semakin menonjol dengan teknik dan improvisasi yang semakin kompleks. Di Bali instrumen kendang biasanya dimainkan secara berpasangan dan individu. Jika dimainkan secara berpasangan maka kendang itu dinamakan kendang lanang dan kendang wadon. Kendang lanang ialah kendang yang memiliki suara lebih kecil atau tinggi, sedangkan kendang wadon ialah kendang yang suaranya lebih besar ataupun lebih rendah. Contoh-contoh jenis kendang Bali diantaranya, kendang mebarung, kendang tambur, kendang bedug, kendang cedugan, kendang gupekan, kendang bebarongan, kendang kerumpungan, kendang batel dan kendang angklung.

Salah satu dari kendang tersebut yang memiliki tehnik permainan yang unik dan rumit adalah kendang bebarongan, yang dimana dalam mempermainkannya menggunakan sebuah alat yang disebut panggul kendang, dan tehnik permainannya lebih banyak mempergunakan tehnik mekendang tunggal. Disebut kendang bebarongan karena kendang ini khusus digunakan untuk menyajikan gending-gending bebarongan dan dipergunakakan untuk mengiringi tari barong. Kendang merupakan salah satu alat yang sangat penting dalam Karawitan Bali. Istilah kendang telah disinggung dalam beberapa literatur yang berasal dari tahun 821 dan 850 Masehi dengan istilah padahi dan muraba. Dalam prasasti bebetin yang berasal dari abad ke-9, kendang disebut dengan istilah papadaha.

Satu diantara sembilan jenis kendang yang terdapat dalam Karawitan Bali bernama kendang bebarongan. Kendang bebarongan adalah kendang yang secara khusus terdapat dalam barungan gamelan bebarongan. Jenis kendang ini mempunyai panjang sekitar 62-65 cm, garis tengah tebokan besar berukuran 26-28cm dan garis tengah tebokan kecil sekitar 21,5-23cm. Kendang bebarongan ini termasuk dalam ukuran kendang yang tanggung (nyalah: Bahasa Bali), karena ukurannya yang tidak terlalu besar maupun tidak terlalu kecil. Ada dua cara untuk memainkan kendang bebarongan, yakni bisa dengan mempergunakan panggul dan juga bisa dimainkan tanpa menggunakan panggul. Adanya jenis-jenis kendang seperti tersebut diatas tidaklah luput dari peranan seniman-seniman yang mempunyai daya kreatifitas tinggi dan suatu pemikiran kritis serta nilai seni tinggi yang disertai tahapan-tahapan atau proses yang meski dilewati.

Langkah pertama yang dilakukan dalam pembuatan kendang bebarongan adalah mencari dewasa ayu – – hari atau waktu yang baik agar mendapatkan keselamatan dalam bekerja dan kendang yang diciptakan nantinya memiliki kwalitas yang baik. Yang diawali dengan mencari waktu untuk menebang pohon yaitu sasih karo, kawulu dan kesanga yang biasanya disebut sasih berag (kurus) yang biasanya menggunakan sesaji berupa canang sari dan segehan. Setelah kayu dipotong maka tukang kendang akan mencari hari baik untuk bekerja atau nuasen. Menurut informasi dari I Putu Gede Sula Jelantik, hari tersebut adalah hari-hari yang jatuhnya bertepatan engan dewasa : karna sula, kala geger, aswajag turun dan bojog turun. Setelah kendang itu selesai digarap lalu di upacarai yang disebut dengan istilah ngupain atau masupati yang bertujuan untuk menghasilkan suara seperti yang diinginkan sekaligus dapat dipergunakan dalam konteks upacara. Setelah semua prosesi ini terlewati maka ada beberapa hal lagi yang harus dikerjakan seperti, membangun bantang dan nukub kendang (memasang kulit kendang).

Sumber:Membaca buku resensi kendang barong isi denpasar

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