BAYU WIRAWAN (KING JAZZ) MASTERPIECES

FOREVER "KING JAZZ" MASTEPIECING

WUJUD dan UNSUR KEBUDAYAAN “GONG KEBYAR”

WUJUD dan UNSUR KEBUDAYAAN “GONG KEBYAR”

TUGAS Kelas B Semester 1 – Angkatan 2012

 FSP – JSK – ISI DENPASAR

BAYU WIRAWAN – NIM: 2012 02 058 

 

 

Pola Rumusan

Wujud Konkrit Kebudayaan

Lokasi/Tempat

Sifat

Nama Lain/Sebutan

 

Contoh

Gagasan

Otak/Kepala

Abstrak

IDEOFACT (SYSTEM BUDAYA)

Tokoh-Tokoh Partisipan, Pencipta, Pelaku Seni

Perilaku Berpola

Fenomena Kehidupan

Konkret

SOCIOFACT (SYSTEM SOCIAL)

Kegiatan Pelestarian Seni Budaya dan Agama di Banjar-Banjar

Keb. Fisik

Fenomena Kehidupan

Konkret

ARTEFACT (SYSTEM FISIK)

Gong Kebyar

 

1)     WUJUD KEBUDAYAAN FISIK  ARTEFAK KEBUDAYAAN: GONG KEBYAR

 

FENOMENA: Di Dalam Masyarakat Bali, Sangat Dikenal Sebuah Kebudayaan Bermain Music Secara Berkelompok Bernama Gamelan Gong Kebyar Jenis-Jenis Instrumen Yang Digunakan Pada Gamelan Gong Kebyar Antara Lain :

Kendang

Terompong

Ugal

Gangsa

Kantil

Kajar

Ceng-Ceng

Calung

Jegogan

Gong

 

LOKASI: Gong Kebyar Dimainkan Oleh Seluruh Kelompok Masyarakat Dari Semua Golongan. Baik Di Kota Maupun Di Desa-Desa. Kebudayaan Ini Dilestarikan Sejak Jaman Nenek Moyang Orang Bali Yang Tinggal Di Bali. Berkeinginan Menurunkan Kebudayaan Adhi Luhung Ini Hingga Pada Level Anak Cucu Untuk Dilestarikan Sepanjang Masa.

SIFAT: Gong Kebyar Ini Sifatnya Universal Bias Dimainkan Oleh Siapapun Di Seluruh Bali, Dan Bahkan Di Luar Negeri.

URAIAN: Gamelan Adalah Sebuah Orkestra Bali Yang Terdiri Dari Bermacam-Macam Instrumen Seperti : Gong, Kempur, Reyong, Terompong, Ceng-Ceng, Kendang, Suling, Gangsa Dan Rebab Yang Mempunyai Laras Selendro Dan Pelog.

Dapat Dipahami Bahwa Hidupnya Seni Karawitan Bali Di Tengah-Tengah Masyarakat Telah Luluh Berefleksi Dengan Aktivitas Kehidupan Masyarakat Sehari-Hari Dalam Struktur Masyarakat Yang Bervariasi Baik Dalam Kegiatan Keagamaan Maupun Adat/Tradisi. Kenyataan Ini Nampak Dengan Jelas Karena Karawitan Bali Muncul Dalam Nafasnya Yang Murni, Memiliki Identitas Dan Kekhasan Yang Masih Didukung Oleh Sistem Kehidupan Masyarakat Bali.

Karawitan Bali Menjadi Suatu Kebanggaan, Mengingat Banyaknya Pengakuan Dari Berbagai Negara Di Dunia Yang Menempatkan Karawitan Bali Dalam Kategori Yang Baik. Pujian Seperti Ini Tidak Perlu Diragukan Lagi Terbukti Dengan Adanya Peminat-Peminat Seni Dari Berbagai Negara Datang Ke Bali Untuk Mempelajari Karawitan Bali, Baik Dari Segi Teori Maupun Praktek.

Di Bali Sendiri Terdapat Kurang Lebih 26 Jenis Gamelan Yang Masing-Masing Memiliki Kelengkapan Bebarungan Dengan Fungsi Yang Berbeda Dan Jumlahnya Semakin Bertambah, Salah Satu Diantaranya Yaitu Gong Kebyar. Gong Kebyar Belakangan Ini Masih Terus Menjadi Suatu Karya Untuk Memenuhi Kebutuhan Masyarakat, Perorangan Maupun Kelompok. Sebagai Suatu Bentuk Kesenian Yang Usianya Relatif Muda, Gong Kebyar Berkembang Sangat Pesat Dan Merupakan Suatu Jenis Karawitan Bali Yang Paling Populer Bahkan Sampai Keluar Dari Daerah Bali. Di Bali Sendiri Hampir Setiap Desa Memiliki Gamelan Gong Kebyar, Dan Gong Kebyar Telah Banyak Mempengaruhi Jenis-Jenis Kesenian Bali Yang Lain, Tidak Hanya Dalam Bentuk Seni Karawitan Namun Juga Dalam Bentuk Seni Tari Yang Dibawakan Dalam Bentuk Sendratari.

Gong Kebyar Adalah Barungan Gamelan Bali Sebagai Perkembangan Terakhir Dari Gong Gede, Memakai Laras Pelog Lima Nada Yang Awal Mulanya Tidak Mempergunakan Instrumen Terompong. Selanjutnya Gong Kebyar Dapat Diartikan Suatu Barungan Gamelan Gong Yang Didalam Permainannya Sangat Mengutamakan Kekompakan Suara, Dinamika, Melodi Dan Tempo. Ketrampilan Mengolah Melodi Dengan Berbagai Variasi Permainan Dinamika Yang Dinamis Dan Permainan Tempo Yang Diatur Sedemikian Rupa Serta Didukung Oleh Teknik Permainan Yang Cukup Tinggi Sehingga Dapat Membedakan Style  Gong Kebyar Yang Satu Dengan Yang Lainnya.

Untuk Mengungkapkan Asal Mula  Gong Kebyar Memang Merupakan Suatu Tugas Yang Tidak Begitu Mudah. Sebelum Munculnya Gong Kebyar Di Bali, Jenis-Jenis Gamelan Yang Telah Ada Hanyalah Sebagian Besar Berupa Gamelan Gong Gede, Gong Luwang, Gong Beri, Gamelan Pelegongan Dan Lain-Lainnya. Keadaan Ini Berlangsung Sampai Terjadinya Perang Puputan Badung Tahun 1906. Bapak I Nyoman Rembang Seorang Tokoh Gong Kebyar Asal Sesetan Denpasar Mengatakan Bahwa Lagu-Lagu Kebyar Pertama-Tama Diciptakan Oleh I Gusti Nyoman Panji Di Desa Bungkulan Pada Tahun 1914. Kemudian Menyebar Ke Desa-Desa Lainnya Di Bali Utara Dan Lagu-Lagu Ini Dicoba Untuk Ditarikan Oleh Ngakan Kuta Yang Berdomisili Di Desa Bungkulan.

Berdasarkan Uraian Diatas Bahwa Dapat Disimpulkan Pada Tahun 1914 Gong Kebyar Yang Muncul Penuh Dengan Pembaharuan Namun Tetap Berpegang Pada Tradisi Yang Ada Yaitu Seperti Gong Gede. Beberapa Pendapat Seniman Gong Kebyar Mengatakan Bahwa Gong Kebyar Merupakan Perkembangan Dari Gong Gede Yang Banyak Dipengaruhi Oleh Pelegongan Yakni Dengan Masuknya Unsur “Otek-Otekan” Dalam Gong Kebyar.

 

2)     SOCIOFACT – PERILAKU BERPOLA

FENOMENA:  Melihat Dimana-Mana Di Seluruh Pulau Bali Terdapat Struktur Hirarki Kepemerintahan Dari Kota Hingga Ke Desa. Dan Di Setiap Desa Terdapat “Banjar”, Yaitu Kelompok Yang Lebih Kecil Dari Suatu Adat Yang Mengemban Suatu Tugas Dan Kewajiban Yang Sama Dari Setiap Individu Masyarakat, Seperti Kegiatan Bhakti, Ngayah, Latihan-Latihan Karawitan, Menari Bali, Pertemuan-Pertemuan Bernuansa Pelestarian Kebudayaan Dan Agama Hindu Bali.

LOKASI: Hampir Di Setiap Banjar Dilakukan Pelatihan-Pelatihan Gong Kebyar.

Pola-Pola Pelatihan Dan Tradisi Bermain Gamelan Gong Kebyar Menyeluruh Di Seluruh Banjar Di Seluruh Pulau Bali.

SIFAT:  Banjar Tersebar Menyeluruh Se-Pulau Bali

URAIAN: Balai Banjar, Tempat Belajar Dan Melestarikan Budaya Bali

Saya Pernah Menonton Film Lawas, Film Bali “Tempo Doeloe” Yang Kebetulan Diberi Pinjam Oleh Seorang Teman. Teman Saya Ini Mendapatkan Film Ini Dari Seorang Tamu Asing Yang Kebetulan Berada Di Bali Sekitar Tahun 1940. Disitu Terkesan Bahwa Setiap Pemudi Bisa Menari Dan Setiap Pemuda Bisa Memainkan Alat Music (Gamelan). Masyarakatnya Terlihat Lugu, Dengan Pakaian Seadanya. Mereka Berkumpul Di Balai Banjar Untuk Bersama-Sama Belajar Menari Dan Menabuh. Mereka Terdorong Dari Dalam Dirinya Sendiri Untuk Bisa Berperan. Terlihat Anak-Anak Yang Umurnya Masih Relatif Kecil Sudah Sangat Pintar Menari Dan Memainkan Gamelan. Balai Banjar Tempo Dulu Umumnya Terbuka, Beratapkan Alang-Alang Dan Bertiang Kayu Kelapa, Dengan Tembok Terbuat Dari Tanah Popolan.  Bangunan Balai Banjar Yang Sangat Sederhana Ini, Sebagai Tempat Belajar Dan Melestarikan Budaya Dari Leluhur Orang Bali. Di Tengah Pergeseran Moralitas Manusia Yang Semakin Egois Mengutamakan Kepentingan Pribadi, Masyarakat Di Bali Masih Eksis Mempertahankan Tradisi Musyawah Mufakat. Sistem Masyarakat Di Bali Sangat Kental Dengan Keterikatan Kekerabatan, Sehingga Terwujud Suatu Ketergantungan Satu Sama Lain.

 

Sistem Banjar Menjadi Suatu Pilihan Masyarakat Untuk Menghimpun Diri Mereka Dalam Satu Wilayah Dalam Bentuk Kesatuan Lingkungan. Batas Teritorial Banjar Merupakan Satuan Pengikat Warga Dan Diatur Dalam Awig-Awig (Peraturan Banjar). Organisasi Terkecil Dalam Pengaturan Administratif Desa Ini, Benar-Benar Mempunyai Fungsi Yang Besar Dalam Memberdayakan Potensi Masyarakat.

 

Dalam Menjalankan Fungsinya, Bangunan Pendukung Yang Dikenal Dengan ‘Bale Banjar’ Menjadi Pusat Kegiatan. Pada Mulanya Bale Banjar Mempunyai Fungsi Sebagai Tempat Bermusyarawah Bagi Anggota Banjar. Karena Musyawarah Tidak Dilakukan Setiap Saat, Maka Bale Banjar Digunakan Untuk Menampung Seluruh Kegiatan Anggota Banjar. Sebagai Contoh, Pada Pagi Hari Bale Banjar Menjadi Pasar Pagi Dan Taman Kanak-Kanak. Siang Hari Sebagai Tempat Kerja Pengrajin, Sore Hari Sebagai Tempat Olah Raga Dan Malam Hari Sebagai Tempat Latihan Kesenian. Disamping Itu, Anggota Banjar Dapat Memanfaatkan Bale Banjar Sebagai Tempat Resepsi Bila Mempunyai Kegiatan Adat Atau Keagamaan.

Peraturan Banjar Yang Dituang Dalam ‘Awig-Awig’ Mengatur Anggota Banjar Dalam Menjalani Kehidupan Sosial Dalam Sebuah Banjar. Awig-Awig Ini Mempunyai Suatu Keunikan Yaitu Mampu Mengikat Warganya Untuk Patuh Sehingga Tatanan Masyarakat Dapat Stabil. Sebagai Contoh, Bila Ada Kematian, Begitu Kentongan Dibunyikan, Warga Pasti Sudah Berduyun-Duyun Ke Rumah Keluarga Yang Berduka. Walaupun Ada Warga Yang Belum Mendengar Keluarga Mana Yang Berduka, Mereka Pasti Sudah Keluar Rumah Berpakaian Adat Ringan Sambil Bertanya Keluarga Mana Yang Berduka.

 

Sistem Banjar Telah Terbukti Mampu Melestarikan Adat Dan Budaya Bali Dari Derasnya Pengaruh Globalisasi. Seberapa Pintar Atau Tinggi Jabatan Seorang Warga Dalam Karirnya, Dia Juga Dikenakan Kewajiban Yang Sama Sesuai Awig-Awig Yang Berlaku. Begitu Pula Bagi Warga Yang Mempunyai Predikat Negatif Di Tengah Masyarakat, Dia Juga Mempunyai Kewajiban Yang Sama. Asalkan Seorang Warga Masih Terikat Menjadi Anggota Dari Banjar Tersebut, Warga Tersebut Akan Mendapat Perhatian Sepenuhnya Dari Warga Yang Lainnya. Saling Memperhatikan Dan Mendukung Satu Sama Lain Khususnya Dalam Menjalankan Adat Istiadat Di Bali Menjadi Ciri Khas Dari Sistem Banjar.

 

Dalam Pergeseran Moralitas Jaman Modern Sekarang Ini, Banjar Sering Disalahgunakan Untuk Hal-Hal Negatif Oleh Warga Yang Tidak Bertanggungjawab. Seperti Tawuran Pemuda Antar Banjar, Sengketa Kuburan, Pemblokiran Jalan Desa, Dll. Namun Yang Unik Dalam Penyelesaian Kasus-Kasus Tersebut, Yaitu Kasus Tersebut Cepat Sekali Dicairkan Oleh Tokoh-Tokoh Banjar Dengan Musyawarah Mufakat.

 

Walau Kehidupan Perkotaan Begitu Komplek, Sampai Saat Ini, Sistem Banjar Tetap Eksis Dalam Menjaga Tatanan Masyarakat Di Bali.

 

3)     IDEO FACT

 

Lontar Prakempa

Tafsir Gamelan Tentang Keharmonisan

 

Gamelan Bali Memang Bukan Sekadar Gamelan Atau Instrumen Musik Tradisi. Proses Penciptaan Maupun Teknik Pemukulannya, Umumnya Berangkat Dari Filosofi Kehidupan, Yakni Mencapai Keharmonisan. Gamelan Bali Pun Diulas Dalam Berbagai Lontar, Seperti Lontar Prakempa, Aji Gurnita Dan Gong Wesi. Khusus Berdasarkan Lontar Prakempa, Bagaimana Sebenarnya Filosofi Gamelan Bali?

 

Prakempa, Sebuah Lontar Mitologi Gamelan Bali, Diduga Cukup Tua Umurnya. Ditinjau Dari Segi Etimologi, Kata ”Prakempa” Berarti Pergolakan Dunia Atau Ramalan Tentang Pergolakan Dunia. Dalam Konteksnya Dengan Gamelan Bali, Prakempa Kiranya Dimaksudkan Sebagai Seluk-Beluk Gamelan Bali Yang Pada Hakikatnya Berintikan Tatwa (Filsafat Atau Logika), Susila (Etika), Lango (Estetika) Dan Gagebug (Teknik).

 

Uraian Mengenai Filsafat Atau Logika Dalam Gambelan Bali, Tulis Dr. I Made Bandem Dalam Bukunya ”Prakempa Sebuah Lontar Gamelan Bali” Yang Diterbitkan Oleh Akademi Seni Tari Indonesia Denpasar (1986), Dimulai Dengan Terciptanya Bunyi, Suara, Nada Dan Ritme Oleh Sang Hyang Tri Wisesa. Nada-Nada Itu Diwujudkan Dengan Simbol Penganggening Akasara, Seperti Bisah, Taleng Dan Cecek. Gambelan Sebagai Musikal Instrumen Atau Sebagai Musik Tak Dapat Dipisahkan Dari Konsep Keseimbangan Hidup Orang Bali Yang Meliputi Konsep Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dengan Tuhan, Konsep Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dengan Alam Sekitarnya, Dan Konsep Hidup Manusia Dengan Sesamanya. Ketiga Konsep Keseimbangan Hidup Di Atas Dinamakan Tri Hita Karana.

 

Orang Bali, Lanjut Bandem, Di Mana Pun Berada Dan Apa Pun Yang Diperbuat, Konsep Keseimbangan Hidup Ini Akan Menjadi Dasar Perbuatannya. Sesuai Dasar Filsafat Atau Logika Yang Tercantum Dalam Lontar Prakempa, Konsep Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Itu Dapat Terwujud Dalam Beberapa Dimensi Yaitu: (1) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Dimensi Tunggal, Yaitu Keseimbangan Hidup Yang Berdasarkan Falsafah Mokshartham Jagadditaya Ca Iti Dharmah; (2) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Dimensi Dualistis, Yaitu Percaya Terhadap Adanya Dua Kekuatan Yang Dahsyat Seperti Baik Dan Buruk, Siang Dan Malam, Laki Dan Perempuan, Kaja Dan Kelod, Sekala Dan Niskala, Dll.; (3) Keseimbangan Hidup Dalam Dimensi Tiga Yaitu Percaya Dengan Adanya Unsur Serba Tiga Dalam Kehidupan Seperti Tri Murti: Brahma, Wisnu Dan Siwa; Tri Loka: Bhur Loka (Dunia Bawah), Bhuvah Loka (Dunia Antara), Svah Loka (Dunia Atas): Tri Aksara: Ang, Ung Dan Mang; Tri Sakti: Saraswati, Laksmi Dan Uma; Tri Guna: Satvam (Sifat Baik), Rajas (Sifat Loba) Dan Tamas (Sifat Malas) Dll.; (4) Keseimbangan Hidup Dalam Empat Dimensi, Yaitu Percaya Adanya Kekuatan Serba Empat Dalam Kehidupan Seperti Catur Lokapala: Indra, Yama, Kwera Dan Baruna: Catur Asrama Dharma: Brahmacari, Grahasta, Wanaprasta Dan Bhiksuka; Catur Purusa Artha: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Dan Moksha, Dll.; (5) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Dimensi Lima, Yaitu Percaya Adanya Kekuatan Pertiwi, Apah, Bayu, Teja, Dan Akasa; Panca Cradha: Tuhan, Jiwa, Karmapala, Reinkarnasi Dan Moksha; Panca Yadnya: Dewa Yadnya, Pitra Yadnya, Manusa Yadnya, Rsi Yadnya Dan Buta Yadnya, Dll.; (6) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Dimensi Enam Seperti: Sad Ripu (Enam Perbuatan Yang Tidak Baik): Kama (Nafsu), Kroda (Marah), Moda (Jahat), Loba (Rakus), Himsa (Menyiksa) Dan Matsarya (Iri Hati); Sad Rasa: Pedas, Asam, Manis, Asin, Pahit Dan Sepet, Dll.; (7) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Dimensi Tujuh, Yaitu Keseimbangan Hidup Yang Percaya Dengan Adanya Tujuh Konsep Seperti Sapta Wara; Redite (Minggu), Soma (Senin), Anggara (Selasa), Buda (Rabu), Wraspati (Kamis), Sukra (Jumat) Dan Saniscara (Sabtu); Sapta Loka: Bhur, Bvah, Traya, Jana, Maha, Satya Dan Loka; (8) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Delapan Dimensi, Yaitu Kepercayaan Manusia Terhadap Delapan Kekuatan Seperti Astais Warya: Anima (Halus), Loghima (Maha Ringan), Prakamya (Segala Kehendaknya Terjadi), Mahima (Menyeluruh), Prapti (Segala Tempat Dapat Dicapai), Icitwa (Utama Dalam Segala Hal), Wacitwa (Paling Berkuasa), Dan Yatrakamawasayitwa (Tak Ada Yang Dapat Menentang Kodratnya); (9) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Dimensi Sembilan, Yaitu Manusia Percaya Dengan Adanya Sembilan Unsur Dalam Keseimbangan Seperti Dewata Nawa Sanga: Icwara, Brahma, Mahadewa, Wisnu, Mahesora, Rudra, Sangkara, Samhu Dan Siwa; Dan (10) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Dalam Dimensi Sepuluh, Yaitu Kepercayaan Terhadap Adanya Sepuluh Unsur Dalam Keseimbangan Seperti Dasa Aksara: Sa, Ba, Ta, A, I, Na, Ma, Ci, Wa, Ya.

 

Keseluruhan Dimensi (Konsepsi) Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia Itu, Kata Bandem Yang Kini Rektor Isi Yogyakarta, Menjadi Dasar Falsafah Dari Perwujudan Lontar Prakempa. Konsepsi Keseimbangan Itu Akan Muncul Satu Persatu Dalam Lontar Itu. Dimensi-Dimensi Itu Saling Berkaitan Satu Sama Lainnya Dan Menunjukkan Adanya Dua Kekuatan Yang Vital, Yaitu Kekuatan Baik Dan Buruk.

 

Lima Dimenasi

 

Menurut Falsafah Prakempa Bahwa Bunyi (Suara) Mempunyai Kaitan Yang Erat Dengan Konsepsi Lima Dimensi Yang Dinamakan Panca Mahabhuta, Yaitu Pertiwi, Bayu, Apah, Teja Dan Akasa. Bunyi Dengan Warnanya Masing-Masing Menyebar Ke Seluruh Penjuru Bumi Dan Akhirnya Membentuk Sebuah Lingkaran Yang Disebut Lingkaran Pengider Bhuana. Pencipta Dari Bunyi Itu Bernama Bhagawan Wiswakarma Dan Ciptaan Beliau Mengambil Ide Dari Bunyi (Suara) 8 (Delapan) Penjuru Dunia Yang Sumbernya Berada Pada Dasar Bumi. Suara-Suara (Bunyi) Itu Dibentuk Menjadi 10 (Sepuluh) Nada Yaitu 5 (Lima) Nada Yang Disebut Laras Pelog Dan 5 (Lima) Nada Disebut Laras Slendro.

 

Nada-Nada Itu Mempunyai Kaitan Dengan Panca Tirta Dan Panca Geni, Dua Sumber Keseimbangan Hidup Manusia. Laras Pelog Mempunyai Hubungan Dengan Panca Tirta Dan Laras Slendro Berkaitan Dengan Panca Geni. Panca Tirta Merupakan Manifestasi Dari Bhatara Smara Dan Panca Geni Merupakan Manifestasi Dari Bhatari Ratih. Dari 10 (Sepuluh) Nada Yang Dijiwai Oleh Smara Dan Ratih Sebagai Dewa Percintaan Bersumber Pada 7 (Tujuh) Buah Nada Yang Urutannya Sebagai Berikut: Ding, Dong, Deng, Ndung, Dung, Dang, Nding. Ketujuh Nada Ini Merupakan Sumber Bunyi Dalam Gambelan Bali Dan Menurut Prakempa Bunyi (Suara) Itu Disebut Genta Pinara Pitu (Bunyi Berjarak Tujuh.

 

Di Samping Terciptanya Pelog 5 Nada, Slendro 5 Nada Dan Pelog 7 Nada, Prakempa Menyebut-Nyebut 3 (Tiga) Nada Yang Berkaitan Dengan Tri Aksara (Ang, Ung, Mang) Dan Slendro 4 (Empat) Nada Yang Berkaitan Dengan Catur Lokapala (Indra, Yama, Kwera Dan Baruna) Berikut Tempat Dan Para Dewanya, Serta Keterkaitannya Dengan Hidup Manusia Secara Lahiriah.

 

URAIAN PERSPEKTIF RASA ESTETIKA:

 

Seniman Karawitan Bali Masa Lampau Sesungguhnya Sudah Sangat Peka Terhadap Rasa Musikal, Hal Itu Kita Warisi Hingga Sekarang Dan Kita Cukup Dibuat Terpesona Ketika Mendengarkan Gending-Gending Ciptaan Mereka, Rasa Musikalnya Enak Dan Cocok/Sesuai Dengan Apa Yang Mereka Ingin Ungkapkan. Ketika Hal Ini Ditanyakan Kepada Beberapa Guru Senior Tradisional Mereka Menjawab Dengan Bermacam-Macam. Ada Yang Menyebutkan Hal Itu Disebabkan Sang Komposer Masa Lampau Sudah Sangat Sepuh Dan Sangat Peka Terhadap Rasa Musikal, Namun Ada Juga Menyebutkan Karena Sang Komposer Masa Lampau Membuat Lagu Melewati Eksplorasi Yang Mantap Dan Membutuhkan Waktu Yang Cukup Lama Termasuk Mengadakan Semedi Sebelum Mencipta Lagu (Wawancara Dengan I Wayan Berata Tanggal 28 Juli 2004 Dirumahnya). Jawaban Seperti Ini Tentu Sifatnya Sangat Filosofis Bahkan Mungkin Juga Politis Sehingga Membuat Kita Selalu Tanda Tanya Dan Terus Ingin Menelusuri Guna Mendapatkan Jawaban Yang Lebih Mudah Dipahami Dari Segi Keilmuan.

 

Beberapa Literarur Telah Ada Yang Menyinggung Masalah Rasa Musikai Seperti Misalnya Lontar Prakempa Dan Aji Gurnita, Kedua Lontar Ini Sesungguhnya Telah Menjelaskan Teori Rasa Dalam Karawitan Bali, Walaupun Untuk Memahami Secara Mendalam Masih Sangat Susah Karena Sifat Literatur Tersebut Lebih Mengedepankan Aspek Estetika Filosofis. Di Satu Sisi Dewasa Ini Kita Sangat Membutuhkan Teori Yang Bisa Memandu Para Seniman Muda Untuk Memahami Teori Sekaligus Mempraktekkannya.

 

Lontar Prakempa Menyebutkan Ada Empat Aspek Utama Dalam Gamelan Bali Yaitu Tatwa (Filsafat Atau Logika), Susila (Etika), Lango (Estetika), Dan Gegebug (Teknik) (Bandem, 1986:1). Keempat Unsur Pokok Sebagai Isi Dari Lontar Prakempa Ini Pada Dasarnya Sebuah Sumber Berharga Guna Mencermati Teori Rasa Musikal Dalam Karawitan Bait. Sebagai Sebuah Pedoman Pokok Keempat Aspek Utama Ini Masih Perlu Diteliti Secara Mendalam Untuk Bisa Dijadikan Landasan Dalam Menguraikan Lebih Eksplisit Untuk Menjadi Sebuah Keterangan Yang Mudah Dicerna.

 

Lontar Aji Gurnita Ada Menyebutkan Sebuah Bab Khsus Yang Diberi Judul Tutur Catur Muni-Muni, Yaitu Empat Gamelan Sekawan Yang Semuanya Dianggap Bersumber Pada Gamelan Gambuh, Sebuah Gamelan Yang Konon Penciptanya Adalah Para Dewa Dari Langit (Ibid.,  P. 6). Gamelan Gambuh Atau Pegambuhan Oleh Seniman Bali Sering Disebut-Sebut Sebagai “Tambang Emas” Atau Sumber Inspirasi Atau Sumber Acuan Penciptaan Gamelan Dan Repertoar Gamelan Lainnya.  Hal Ini Berarti Dengan Mengoreksi Secara Detail Unsur-Unsur Musikal Gamelan Gambuh Akan Ditemukan Seperangkat Cara Atau Aturan Untuk Menciptakan Sebuah Lagu Yang Baik.

 

Penelitian Yang Sifatnya Menerangkan Lebih Detail Mengenai Isi Lontar Prakempa Dan Aji Gurnita Sesungguhnya Sudah Dilakukan Oleh Seniman Karawitan Bali Dan Banyak Melahirkan Teori-Teori Yang Sangat Bermanfaat Bagi Pembelajaran Karawitan Bali. Almarhum I Gusti Putu Geria Lewat Analisisnya Telah Melahir-Kan Konsep Tri Angga, Sebuah Teori Logika Musikal Dan Bedah Struktur Karawitan Bali, Yang Pada Dasarnya Adalah Konsep Estetika Dalam Memahami Struktur. Teori Ini Sampai Sekarang Selalu Dijadikan Pedoman Bagi Para Komposer Untuk Membuat Struktur Gending Menjadi Harmonis Serta Memiliki Kaedah-Kaedah Estetika.

 

I Made Bandem Selain Telah Menterjemahkan Dan Membedah Dengan Cermat Isi Lontar Prakempa Dan Aji Gurnita, Juga Menelaah Dan Menguraikan Lebih Detail Aspek Teknik/Gegebug Kemudian Menyusun Sebuah Artikel Berjudul Ubit-Ubitan, Sebuah Teknik Permainan Gamelan Bali. Ubit-Ubitan Atau Kotekan Yang Dianalisis Oleh I Made Bandem Berdasarkan Informasi Dua Maestro Karawitan Bali Yaitu Almarhum I Gusti Putu Geria Dan Almarhum I Nyoman Kaler. Lebih Lanjut Disebutkan Bahwa Ragam Kotekan Atau Ubit-Ubitan Juga Akan Menentukan Rasa Musikal Tertentu (Ibid., P. 15).

 

I Wayan Rai S Dalam Orasi Ilmiahnya Berjudul Unsur Musikal Dan Ekstra Musikal Dalam Penciptaan Gending-Gending Iringan Tari Bali Juga Telah Memberikan Panduan Kepada Kita Untuk Memahami Karakterisasi Karawitan Sebagai Iringan Tari. Rai Menyebutkan Ada Dua Unsur Penting Yang Dijadikan Acuan Oleh Komposer Dalam Menciptakan Iringan Tari Bail Yaitu Unsur Musikal Dan Unsur Ekstra Musikal (Rai, Op. Cit. P. 4).  Penelitian Yang Dilaku-Kan I Wayan Rai Ini Masih Merupakan Hasil Analisis Dan Hipotesa Awal Untuk Dijadikan Acuan Dalam Mengadakan Penyelidikan Yang Sifatnya Lebih Detail.

Colin Mcphee Dalam Bukunya Berjudul Music In Bali (1966) Juga Menjelaskan Tentang Adanya Variasi Dalam Tetekep Yang Dapat Melahirkan Karakterisasi Gending-Gending Pegambuhan. Mcphee Menyebutkan Tetekep Selisir Memiliki Karakter Halus (Refined), Tetekep Tembung Memiliki Karakter Keras (Coarse), Sedangkan Tetekep Sundaren Memiliki Karakter Antara Halus Dan Keras. Tetekep Tebeng Juga Berkarakter Halus Tetapi Biasanya Digunakan Secara Khusus Untuk Mengiringi Tokoh Putri (Princess), Sedangkan Tetekep Baro Untuk Mengiringi Tokoh Pelayan Dan Pelawak Dalam Dramatari Gambuh (Phee, 1966:40). Namun Demikian Apa Yang Menyebabkan Variasi Tetekep Itu Dapat Menentukan Perbedaan Rasa Belum Dijelaskan Secara Detail  Mcphee Hanya Menjeiaskan Kenyataan Yang Biasa Dipergunakan Kemudian Dideskripsi Seperti Tersebut Di Atas.

 

URAIAN: SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN GONG KEBYAR DI BALI

 

Satu Peristiwa Histories Penting Dalam Kehidupan Masyarakat Bali Telah Terjadi Yaitu Jatuhnya Bali Ketangan Penjajah Belanda Ditandai Takluknya Kerajaan Klungkung Sebagai Kerajaan Terakhir Pada Tahun 1908. Sejak Itu Pemerintah Belanda Mulai Mengembangkan Kekuasaannya Dengan Sistem Pemerintahan Barat Sesuai Dengan Kepentingan Colonial. Bali Yang Ketika Itu Terdiri Atas Delapan Kerajaan , Oleh Belanda Dijadikan Dua Bagian, Bali Utara Dibawah Pengawasan Seorang Residen Yang Berkedudukan Di Singaraja Dan Bali Selatan Dibawah Pengawasan Seorang Asisten Residen Yang Berkedudukan Di Denpasar. Bali Utara Dibagi Menjadi Buleleng Dan Jembrana, Sedangkan Bali Selatan Terdiri Atas Tabanan, Badung, Gianyar, Karangasem, Dan Klungkung Yang Membawahi Bangle Dan Nusa Penida.

Berkurangnya Kekuasaan Raja-Raja Bali Itu Mengakibatkan Berkurangnya Perhatiannya Puri ( Keratin) Terhadap Kelangsunga Hidup Seni Perjuntukan Klasik – Gambuh, Wayang Wong, Topeng, Legong, Gong Gede, Semar Pangulingan, Dan Lain-Lain-Yang Pernah Mencapai Masa Keemasan Pada Zaman Kejayaan Raja-Raja Di Bali Seperti Watu Enggong (1460-1550), Dalem Bekung(1550-1580), Dalem Tahan Dewa Agung Jambe (1845-1908). Oleh Karena Itu Sangat Logis Jika Kualitas Dan Kuantitas Penyajian Seni-Seni Klasik Ketika Itu Menjadi Menurun. Keadaan Seperti Itu Sangat Berbeda Di Jawa Yang Justru Karena Berkurangnya Kekuasaan Politiknya, Para Raja Berusaha Mengekstrapolasikan Kekuasaan Lewat Pelestarian Dan Perkembangan Budaya, Tidak Mengherankan Kesenian Keraton Justru Berkembang Dengan Baik. Untung Seni Perjunjukan Bali Masih Tetap Dibutuhkan Sebagai Salah Satu Sarana Upacara Agama Dan Adat, Sehingga Kelangsungan Hidupnya Masih Dapat Dipertahankan Atas Pangayoman Pura (Agama) , Banjar ( Desa Adat), Dan Sekeha (Organisasi) Kesenian. Dari Sisi Ini Tampak Pemerintah Colonial Belanda Sangat Banyak Merugikan Rakyat Indonesia Termasuk Rakyat Bali. Dalam Suasana Zaman Seperti Itu, Dalam Bidang Seni Tumbuh Pula Pembaharuan-Pembaharuan Yang Juga  Merupakan Aktulisasi Kesadaran Nasional Dan Rasa Demokratis Yaitu Ansambel Gamelan Gong Kebyar, Sebuah Bentuk Seni Yang Menggunakan Susunan Instrumen, Pola Garap Gendhing, Pola Penyajian Teknik Tabuhan Instrumen Dan Karakter Baru, Sehingga Tepat Sekali Gamelan Dimasukan Kedalam Kelompok Gamelan Baru. Pemberian Nama “Kebyar” Terhadap Karya Seni Tersebut Tepat, Karena Perangkat Gamelan Baru Itu Betul Mampu Mengekspresikan Karaktek Kebyar, Yaitu Keras, Lincah, Cepat, Agresif, Mengejutkan, Muda, Enerjik, Gelisah, Semangat, Optimis, Kejasmanian, Ambisius, Dab Penuh Emosional.

 

Gamelan Baru Pelog Pancanada Ini Pada Awalnya Merupakan Sebuah Pengembangan Dari Asmbel Gamelan Gong Gede, Sebuah Orkes Agung Gaya Kuno Yang Sangat Diperlukan Pada Hari-Hari Besar Atau Upacara Odalan Di Pura. Gamelan Tradisional Ini Merupakan Sebuah Asambel Gamelan Yang Paling Lengkap Di Bali Yaitu Denga Banyak Menggunakan Instrument Yang Dimainkan Kurang Lebih Enam Puluh Orang Penabuh. Semua Itu Dapat Disebutkan Pada Lontar Aji Gurnita. Dalam Perkembangannya Menjadi Gamelan Kebyar Ada Beberapa Instrument Gamelan Gong Gede Yang Dihilangkan, Dikurangi, Diubah Bentuknya, Dan Ada Pula Yang Tidak Mengalami Perubahan. Instrument Yang Dihilangkan Terdiri Dari : Bende (Bandede), Ponggang, Kempyung, Gumanak, Dan Gentorag Yang Dikurangi Dua Buah, Jublag Dua Buah, Panyacah Dua Buah Dan Cengceng (Kecek) Beberapa Buah; Yang Diubah: Gangsa Ageng Diubah Menjadi Gender (Gangsa Ugal), Gangsa Manengah Menjadi Gangsa Pamade, Gangsa Alit Menjadi Kepluk (Kethuk/Kajar), Dan Kemong Dhang Menjadi Kemong (Kenong) Di Antara Sekian Banyak Instrumen Yang Diubah Yang Sangat Menonjol Mengalami Perubahan Adalah Instrument Gangsa Jongkok. Dalam Gong Gede Setiap Tungguh (Jawa: Ricikan/ Satuan) Instrument Ini Menggunakan Lima Buah Nada: Dhang (Jawa: Nem), Dhing (Ji), Dhong (Ro), Dheng (Lu) Dan Dhung (Mo). Akan Tetapi Dalam Gamelan Kebyar, Pada Awalnya Instrument Gangsa Pernah Menggunakan Tujuh Buah Nada Ditambah Dhang Alit Dan Dhing Alit, Kemudian Berkembang Menjadi Delapan Bilah Nada Yaitu; Dhung, Dhang, Dhing, Dhong, Dheng Alit, Dhang Alit Dan Dhing Alit; Sembilan Bilah Ditambah Nada Dheng (Sebelum Nada Dhung); Dan Selanjutnya Sampai Sekarang Berubah Menjadi Berbilah Sepuluh Dengan Urutan Nada: Dhong, Dheng, Dhung, Dhang, Dhing, Dhong Alit, Dheng Alit, Dhung Alit Dhang Alit, Dhing Alit.

 

Jenis Instrument Gamelan Gong Gede Yang Tidak Mengalami Perubahan Terdiri Dari: Gong, Kempul (Kempur), Kendang, Rebab, Suling, Trompong Ageng (Trompong), Dan Tropong Barangan (Barangan/ Reyong). Dengan Demikian Jenis Instrument Yang Digunakan Dalam Gamelan Kebyar Pada Umumnya Di Bali Terdiri Dari Instrument Melodis: Trompong Satu Tungguh, Reyong Satu Tungguh, Gangsa Ugal (Giying) Dua Tunguh (Ngumbangisep), Gangsa Pamade/Pangenter Dua Tungguh (Ngumbangisep), Gangsa Kantil (Kanthilan), Empat Tungguh (Ngumbangisep) Panyacah,Dua Tungguh (Ngumbangisep), Rebab Sebuah, Suling Satu Sampai Empat Buah; Instrument Ritmis: Kendang Dua Buah Lanang Dan Wadon, Cenceng Satu Atau Dua Stel, Dan Kajar (Kethuk) Satu Buah; Dan Instrument Kolotomik: Kenong (Kemong) Satu Buah, Kempul (Kempur) Satu Buah, Dan Gong Dua Buah Lanang Wadon. Secara Pasti Kapan Terjadi Perubahan Dari Gamelan Gong Gede Menjadi Gamelan Kebyar Pada Saat Ini Belum Diketahui. Namun Demikian Ada Satu Informasi Anak Agung Gede Gusti Jelantik (Bupati Buleleng) Yang Dituturkan Kepada Colin Mcpchee Pada Tahun 1937 Yang Menyebutkan Bahwa Gamelan Kebyar Pertama Kali Didengar Dikalangan Masyarakat Umum Pada Bulan Desenber 1915 Ketika Tokoh Gamelan Di Bali Utara Menyelenggarakan Kompetisi Gamelan Kebyar Di Jagaraga Buleleng. Data Ini Mendekati Apa Yang Dikatakan Made Bandem Bahwa Gamelan Kebyar Telah Terwujud Di Bali Pada Tahun 1914. Ini Berarti Masyarakat Bali Slatan, Meraka Lebih Dahulu Terbuka Terhadap Pengaruh-Pengaruh Modern, Khususnya Setelah Bali Sepenuhnya Dapat Dikuasai Pemerintah Belanda.

 

Kehadiran Gemelan Kebyar Yang Sangat Ekspresif Dan Dinamis Itu Dapat Sambutan Hangat Sebagin Besar Nasyarakat Bali Sehingga Gamelan Itu Cepat Berkembang Keberbagai Daerah Bali Selatan. Hal Ini Terjadi Bukan Karena Gamelan Mampu Mengekspresikan Suatu Sesuai Jiwa Zamannya, Melainkan Juga Karena Mempunyai Sifat Fleksibel, Luwes, Dan Praktis. Satu Keunikan Yang Menonjol Pada Gamelan Baru Itu Adalah Terangkatnya Penyajian Gendhing Kebyar Sebagai Sajian. Sebuah Sajian Yang Disajikan Bukan Untuk Lain Kecuali Untuk Keperluan Konser. Sebagai Alat Bunyi-Bunyian, Gamelan Kebyar Tidak Dapat Dipisahkan Dengan Masyarakat Bali. Ia Biasanya Digunakan Untuk Mengiringi Berbagai Macam Upacara Agama Dan Adat Seperti Dewa Yadnya (Upacara Korban Suci Yang Ditujukan Pada Tuhan), Pitra Yadnya (Kpada Leluhur) Dan Butha Yadnya (Korban Suci Yang Ditujukan Kapada Binatang, Tumbuh-Tumbuhan, Roh Halus, Dan Makluk Halus Lainnya). Sama Seperti Gamelan-Gamelan Lainnya, Gong Kebyar Dapat Menggugah Parasaan Indah Seseorang Dan Memberi Kepuasan Kepada Jiwa Para Penikmat Dan Para Pemainnya. Ia Juga Bias Digunakan Sebagai Media Komonikasi, Sebagai Hiburan, Sebagi Terapi, Sebagai Penggugah Respon Fisik Masyarakat, Dan Dalam Kaitannya Ini Dapat Berperan Untuk Menumbuhkan Intregitas Masyarakat. Disamping Itu Juga Merupakan Karya Seni, Gamelan Kebyar Digunakan Pula Sebagai Iringan Tari Kebyar, Tari Baris, Serta Drama Gong. Dari Uraian Itu Jelas Bahwa Gamelan Kebyar Sangat Dibutuhkan Masyarakat Bali Baik Digunakan Sebagai Sarana Upacara, Sebagai Hiburan Pribadi, Maupun Sebagai Tontonan. Perkembangan Gamelan Kebyar Berjalan Dengan Cepat Dari Kawasan Daerah Bali Utara Menyabar Luas Ke Berbagai Desa Di Bali Selatan. Di Daerah Tabanan Kecuali Bantiran Pengembangan Gamelan Kebyar Berawal Dari Diselenggarakan Upacara Palebon (Pembakaran Jenasah) Di Puri Subania Tabanan Pada Tahun 1919.

 

Atas Usul Dari Seniman Puri, Upacara Agung Itu Dimeriahkan Dengan Pertunjukan Gamelan Kebyar Dari Desa Buntiran, Suatu Desa Wilayah Tabanan Yang Terletak Diperbatasan Antara Kabupaten Tabanan Dengan Kabupaten Buleleng. Kehebatan Penampilan Sekeha Gong Buntiran Sangat Memukau Para Pengamat Sehingga Mampu Merangsang Para Seniman Tabanan Untuk Untuk Mempelajari Gendhing Tabanan Asal Bali Utara Itu. Akhirnya Sejak Peristiwa Itu (1919) Beberapa Sekeha Gong Yang Dipelopori Sekeha Gong Pangkung Segera Mendatangkan Pelatih Gending (Panguruk) Dari Bali Utara Diantaranya I Wayan Sembah (Dari Kedis) I Tatra (Patemon), I Mukia (Nagasepa), Dan I Sudiana (Nagasepa). Gendhing-Gendhing Kebyar Yang Dibawa Dari Bali Itu Pada Awalnya Sebagian Besar Berbentuk Sederhana Tabuh Telu, Gagaboran, Dan Babapangan, Sejak Tahun 1920-An I Wayan Sukra Dan Kawan-Kawan Mulai Menggabungkan Gending Kebyar Yang Dating Dari Bali Utara Dengan Gendhing Palegongan Yang Telah Lama Digelutinya, Sehingga Lahirnya Gendhing Kebyar Yang Kompleks Seperti Diciptakan Sukra Antara Lain: Gendhing Kebyar Sulendra, Gendhing Gineman Gagenderan, Dan Gendhing Tabuh Tegak Gagambangan. Ditahun Yang Sama (1920) Ia Berhasil Pula Menciptakan Beberapa Buah Gendhing Tari (Gendhing Igel), Satu Diantaranya Yang Sangat Terkenal Hingga Kini Adalah Gendhing Tari Kebyar Duduk Trompong. Koreografer Tari Sangat Popular Ini Adalah I Ketut Maria (I Mario), Seorang Seniman Tari Yang Sangat Terkenal Dari Tabanan. Hal Ini Menunjukan Bahwa Tahun 1920-An Nama Pencipta Gendhing Dan Tari (Kebyar)Secara Individual Mulai Ditampilkan. Gede Manik, Seorang Pengendang Yang Sangat Terkenal Dari Jagaraga Buleleng Pada Tahun1932 Mulai Memasukan Gendhing Gender Wayang (Pagenderan) Seperti Gendhing Merak Ngilo, Guak Macok, Sekar Gendot, Dan Lain-Lain Kedalam Gamelan Kebyar.

 

Di Tahun 1935 Ia Berhasil Pula Menciptakan Sebuah Tari Dan Gendhing Trumajaya Yang Sangt Popular Sampai Sekarang. Untuk Garapan Ini Manik Mengakui Dengan Jujur Denganpola-Pola Gerk Tari Yang Dipakai Dalam Tari Trumajaya Merupakan Pengembangan Dekat Tari Pola-Pola Gerak Yng Terdapat Pada Tari Kebyar Legong. Di Dempasar (Kuta) Inyoman Kaler, Seorang Seniman Karawitan Sangat Terkenal Di Bali Sejak Tahun 1935 Mulai Berusaha Mengadakan Pembaharuan Gendhing Dan Tari Kebyar Dengan Menciptakan Beberapa Repertoar Tari Serta Tabuh, Tiga Diantaranya Yang Masih Idup Hingga Sekarang Yaitu Tari Dan Gendhing Margapati, Panji Semirang, Dan Wiratana – Ketiganya Dicipta Padatahun1942. Mulai Akhir Bulan Februari 1942 Sampai Indonesia Mencapai Kemerdekaan Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 Bali Berada Di Tangan Kekuasaan Jepang. Pada Masa Itu Penerintahan Jepang, Bali Dipandang Sebagai Tampat Peristirahatan Dan Hiburan, Sehingga Kesenian Seperti Legong, Arja, Topeng, Dan Lain-Lain Hidup Seperti Biasa. Sementara Seni Kebyar Tidak Mengalami Perubahan, Hingga Tahun 1951 Belum Muncul Lagi Karya Kebyar Yang Popular. Ini Bisa Dimaklumi Karena Di Tahun-Tahun Itu, Bali Masih Diliputi Suasana Memprihatinkan, Karena Nica Ingin Merebut Kembali Daerah Bali Dari Tangan Pemerintahan Indonesia. Dalam Suasana Demikian Pada Tahun 1952 I Mario Dan I Sukra Kembali Menciptakan Sebuah Tari Dan Gendhing Oleg Tabulilingan Yang Sangat Terkenal Hingga Sekarang, Sementara I Wayan Dan Inyoman Berhasil Mewujudkan Karya Tari Dan Gendhing Tenun Pada Tahun 1957. Dalam Perkembangannya, Gendhing Kebyar Yang Awal Berkembangnya Berasal Dari Bali Utara Sedikit Banyak Mengalami Perkembangan Masyarakat Pendukungnya Sehingga Muncul Gendhing Kebyar Gaya Kedaerahan Seperti Gaya Jagaraga, Bantiran, Pangkung, Belaluan, Peliataan, Dan Lain-Lain. Namun Secara Garis Besar Gaya-Gaya Itu Dapat Dibedakan Menjadi Dua: Gaya Bali Utara Dan Gaya Bali Selatan.

 

Corraubias Memberi Penekanan Dari Masaing-Masing Gaya Ini Bahwa Gendhing Kebyar Gaya Bali Utara Lebih Menekan Pada Tehnik Yang Keras, Sinkopasi, Dan Perubahan Dinamis Secara Cepat. Perbedaan Penekanan Ini, Sama Seperti Kehadiran Gendhing Gaya Yogyakarta Dan Gaya Surakarta Di Jawa Tengah Yang Oleh R. Arderson Sutton Dikatakan Bahwa Aktivitas Musical Gaya Yogyakarta Terfokus Pada Permainan Instrument Yang Keras (Saron), Sedangkan Surakarta Lebih Menfokuskan Garapan Pada Vocal Dan Instrument Lembut (Gender, Rebab).

 

Melihat Perkembangan Gamelan Kebyar Dari Tahun 1914 Sampai 1957 Tampak Bahwa Gamelan Kebyar Sangat Disenangi Masyarakat Bali Meskipun Embat Gamelannya Belum Begitu Ideal. Bentuk-Bentuk Gendhing Petegak Masih Terbatas Pada Pangalang, Jajineman, Dan Kakebayaran, Dan Gendhing Tari Belum Ada Yang Menggunakan Gerongan.

 

URAIAN: KONTEKS KEPENTINGAN INDUSTRI PARIWISATA

 

Kebudayaan Bali Sebagai  Sebuah Budaya Tradisional Agraris Telah Berurat Dan Berakar Dengan Dilandasi Budaya Hindu, Dengan Keanekaragaman Ekspresi Budayanya. Ekspresi Yang Paling Nyata Dari Dunia Tradisional Agraris Bali Adalah Ratusan Jenis Ritual Adat-Agama Yang Masih Dilakoni Orang Bali, Hampir Di Setiap Waktu, Dan Kerap Melibatkan Seni Pertunjukan Baik Sakral Maupun Sekuler (Profan, Hiburan).

 

Pada Sisi Yang Lain, Dunia Modern Peradaban Barat Yang Datang Ke Bali Sebagai Konsekuensi Dari Eksplorasi Dan Eksploitasi (Penjajahan) Dunia Barat (Belanda) Pada Abad Ke 17 Yang Memperkenalkan Bali Kepada Perdagangan Dunia, Kapitalisme Berikut Konsumerismenya Yang Kian Mengglobal. Kehadiran Dunia Modern Dapat Dilihat Dari Berubahnya Desa-Desa Agraris Menjadi Kota-Kota Dan Kawasan-Kawasan Wisata Seperti Denpasar, Sanur, Kuta, Nusa Dua, Ubud Dan Terus Merambah Ke Daerah-Daerah Lain; Serta Penduduk Bali Yang Kian Gandrung Dengan Produk-Produk Modern Seperti Mobil, Sepeda Motor, Barang-Barang Elektronik Dan Lainnya. Dunia Tradisional Agraris Berusaha Bertahan Agar Tidak Tergerus Sementara Dunia Modern Berusaha Merebut Karena Memang Itulah Sifat Kapitalisme Dan Konsumerisme. Orang Bali Hidup, Bergulat Di Antara Dua Dunia Ini Dan Berusaha Mengkompromikan Kedua Dunia Yang Saling Bertentangan Ini (I Gusti Raka Panji Tisna ., “Sekilas Tentang Dinamika Seni Pertunjukan Tradisional Bali Dalam Konteks Pariwisata Budaya” Seperti Yang Terdapat Dalam Http://Www.Budpar.Go.Id/Filedata).

 

Dunia Tradisi Bali Yang Berjiwa Hindu Dengan Elemen Pemujaan Alam Dan Para Leluhur Adalah Hasil Evolusi Dan Akulturasi Dari Beberapa Budaya Yang Datang Ke Pulau Ini: Nenek Moyang Dari Cina Selatan Sekitar 4000 Tahun Lalu Dan Budaya Hindu Dan Budha Baik Langsung Dari India Maupun Melalui Jawa Melewat Skenario Perluasan Wilayah Kerajaan Hindu-Buda Di Jawa Ke Bali Sejak Awal Abad Ke 9. Sistim Dan Tatanan Kehidupan Inti Seperti Desa Adat Dengan Banjar-Nya Yang Direkat Oleh Konsep Tiga Pura, Khayangan Tiga (Puseh, Desa, Dalem) Dan Pura Keluarga (Sanggah/Merajan) Serta Organisasi Pertanian Bernama Subak Yang Diperkirakan Mulai Diterapkan Di Bali Sejak Awal Abad Ke 11 Hingga Kini Tetap Kuat Keberadaannya Di Kota Sekalipun. Lembaga Tradisional Sosial Religius Seperti Desa Adat, Banjar Dan Subak Ini Dianggap Sebagai Pilar-Pilar Penyangga Kelestarian Kebudayaan Bali. Dunia Tradisi Ini Mengajarkan Filsafat Keseimbangan Antara Kebutuhan Jasmani-Rohani Sebagai Sumber Kebahagiaan Yang Tercapai Bila Terjadi Keseimbangan Antara Kebutuhan Badan, Kebutuhan Sosial Dan Spiritual. Konsepsi Ini Secara Umum Dikenal Dengan Tri Hita Karana (I Gde., 2002. Apresiasi Kritis Terhadap Kepariwisataan Bali , Print Works, Denpasar-Bali, Indonesia. Seperti Yang Dikutip Oleh I Gusti Raka Panji Tisna).

 

Dunia Modern (Barat) Masuk Ke Bali Sejak Awal Abad Ke 17 Dengan Berkunjungnya Penjelajah-Penjelajah Eropa (Baca Belanda) Ke Daerah Nusantara Dengan Motif Komersial, Mencari Dan Memperdagangkan Rempah-Rempah. Para Pelaut Dan Saudagar Itu Juga Menginjakkan Kaki Di Bali, Kemudian Melakukan Perdagangan Dengan Raja-Raja Di Bali. Perburuan Rempah-Rempah Yang Berlanjut Menjadi Penjajahan Nusantara Oleh Belanda. Awal Tahun 1890-An Bali Dengan Keunikan Kebudayaannya Mulai Dikemas Oleh Belanda Untuk Dijual Sebagai Produk Wisata. Pariwisata Budaya Yang Awalnya Hanya Dilakoni Segelintir Elite Barat (Eropa, Amerika) Untuk Tujuan Melihat Dan Menikmati Pulau Tropis Nan Indah Dengan Budayanya Yang Kaya Dan Unik (Eksotis) Kini Menjadi Pariwisata Yang Mendatangkan Orang Dari Berbagai Belahan Bumi Dalam Jumlah Melebihi Satu Juta Setiap Tahunnya. Mereka Dipercaya Datang Ke Bali Untuk Tujuan Yang Sama, Menikamati Kebudayaan Bali, Walau Tidak Sedikit Juga Yang Datang Sekedar Untuk Melepas Kejenuhan Rutinitas Kehidupan Mereka Yang Intens Dan Untuk Kepentingan Usaha Meraup Keuntungan Dan Malah Menetap Di Bali. Hasil Beberapa Penelitian Dan Survey Memang Menunjukkan Bahwa Sebagian Besar Wisatawan Yang Datang Ke Bali Termotivasi Oleh Keunikan Budaya Bali (Ardika, I Wayan 2004).

 

Usaha-Usaha Belanda Untuk Menguasai Bali Memang Selalu Mendapat Perlawanan Sengit. Belanda Hanya Mampu Menguasai Bali Secara Keseluruhan Pada Tahun 1908 Melalui Penaklukan Kejam Yang Dikecam Luas Di Eropa. Untuk Memperbaiki Citra, Belanda Bergegas Membuat Kebijakan–Kebijakan Untuk Melindungi Dan Menjaga Bali Agar Tetap ”Tradisional”. Bali Dipelajari Dan Dituliskan Secara Rinci Dan Sistematik Oleh Sarjana-Sarjana Belanda. Sebuah Kebijakan Yang Menurut Adrian Vickers, Sarjana Australia, Dalam Bukunya Bali: A Paradise Created Hanya Bermaksud Untuk Bisa Menjual Bali Sebagai Produk Pariwisata.

 

Tidak Lama Berselang, Tahun 1914, Maskapai Pelayaran Belanda (KPM) Sudah Menerbitkan Brosur Wisata Tentang Bali Sebagai ”Pulau Yang Mempesona”, ”Pulau Pura Dan Puri”, ”Pulau Dewata” Dan ”Tempat Wanita Bertelanjang Dada”. Mulai Tahun-Tahun Itu KPM Secara Kontinyu Membawa Segelintir Turis Elite Ke Bali. Pada Tahun 1925 KPM Membangun Bali Hotel Di Denpasar Hotel Pertama Di Bali. Di Antara Turis-Turis Elite Tersebut Ada Seniman, Antropolog Maupun Penulis Yang Dengan Tulisan Dan Interpretasi Mereka Mulai Tahun 1930-An Mengentalkan Citra Bali Di Mata Dunia Sebagai Pulau Surga. Citra Yang Tetap Melekat Hingga Sekarang.

 

Penulisan Perhatikan Secara Seksama Tentang Seni Pertunjukan Drama Dan Tari Bali Pertama Dipublikasikan Pada Tahun 1938. Ironisnya, Dan Tentu Tidak Terlalu Mengejutkan, Bahwa Buku Ini Ditulis Oleh Orang Asing Bernama Walter Spies Dan Beryl De Zoete. Bukankah Intervensi Orang Asing Sudah Merupakan Bagian Dari Sejarah Bali Pada Umumnya? Walter Spies, Peranakan Rusia-Jerman, Adalah Nama Orang Asing Yang Sangat Dikenal Di Bali. Ia Datang Dan Menetap Di Bali Mulai 1927 Hingga Jaman Pendudukan Jepang Di Awal Tahun 1940-An; Seorang Pemusik, Pelukis, Yang Mempunyai Minat Yang Sangat Mendalam Pada Seni Pertunjukan Di Bali. Peranannya Dalam Awal-Awal Perkembangan Pariwisata Budaya Bali Sudah Tidak Diragukan Karena Dia Sangat Dipercaya Oleh Orang Asing Yang Datang Ke Bali Pada Waktu Itu Untuk Memberi Pengalaman Budaya, Khususnya Seni Pertunjukan Di Bali. Pertunjukan Seni Tradisional Menjadi Menu Rutin Bagi Pengunjung Di Jaman Itu. Pementasan Dilakukan Di Berbagai Jaba Pura (Bagian Luar Pura) Di Berbagai Desa Di Daerah Sekitar Ubud Dan Juga Pementasan Ke Bali Hotel Milik Maskapai Pelayaran Belanda, KPM.

 

Beberapa Sarjana Berpendapat Bahwa Orang Bali Mulai Mendefinisikan Kebudayaan Mereka Berdasarkan Definisi Yang Digariskan Oleh Orang-Orang Luar Tersebut. Orang Bali Mematut-Matut Diri Dan Mengukuhkan Diri Untuk Senantiasa Tampil Tradisional; Melakukan Simulacra Atau Sandiwara Tradisionalisasi (Ni Made Ruastiti. Seni Pertunjukan Bali Dalam Kemasan Pariwisata, Denpasar: Bali Mangsi Press). Dalam Usaha Menjaga Agar Tetap Tradisional Pemerintah Daerah Bali Pun, Melalui Perda Nomor 3 Tahun 1974 Dan Telah Direvisi Menjadi Praturan Daerah Nomor 3 Tahun 1991 Mencanangkan Bahwa Kepariwisataan Yang Dikembangkan Di Bali Adalah Pariwisata Budaya. Pariwisata Yang Dalam Perkembangan Dan Pengembangannya Menggunakan Kebudayaan Daerah Bali Yang Dijiwai Agama Hindu Yang Merupakan Bagian Dari Kebudayaan Nasional Sebagai Potensi Dasar Yang Dominan.

 

Setelah Jaman Kemerdekaan Indonesia, Usaha Untuk Secara Maksimal Mengembangkan Bali Sebagai Daerah Tujuan Wisata Menjadi Agenda Penting Pemerintahan Presiden Soekarno; Terlebih-Lebih Pemerintahan Presiden Soeharto, Dan Berlanjut Hingga Sekarang. Pembangunan Hotel Mewah Bali Beach Hotel Oleh Soekarno Dan Pengembangan Kompleks Pariwisata Mewah Nusa Dua Oleh Soeharto Dengan Master Plan Tahun 1971 Oleh Sebuah Perusahaan Perancis, SCETO, Yang Ditindak Lanjuti Dengan Pembangunan 12 Hotel Mewah Beserta Sarana Pendukung Lainnya Adalah Contoh-Contoh Awal Usaha-Usaha Tersebut(Rai, A.A. Gde (2003) Sustaining Culture Through Tourism: Fact Or Fluff (From Heritage To Legacy), Presentasi Pada PATA Annual Conference, Bali) Pemodal Besar Terus Menanamkan Modalnya Menciptakan Boom Pariwisata Tahun 1980-An; Pariwisata Budaya Yang Massal Terus Berlanjut Hingga Sekarang. Bom Bali 2002 Sempat Membuat Pariwisata Bali Kelimpungan Namun Perlahan-Lahan Pulih.

 

 

Sumber-sumber:

http://www.padmabhuana.com/balai-banjar.html

http://www.isi-dps.ac.id/berita/karawitan-bali-dalam-perspektif-rasa

http://blog.isi-dps.ac.id/adisetyawan/sejarah-perkembangan-gong-kebyar-di-bali

http://blog.isi-dps.ac.id/hendra/?p=387

 

 

 

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