Wayang Sapuh Leger

Filed under: Tak Berkategori — wicaksana at 2:15 pm on Rabu, Mei 8, 2013

Mengungkap Fungsi Wayang Sapuh Leger

Judul                 :  Wayang Sapuh Leger
Penyusun           :  I Dewa Ketut Wicaksana
Tebal                :  xxviii, 260 halaman
Penerbit            :  Pustaka Bali Post

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TUMPEK Wayang (yang tahun ini jatuh pada 17 Mei dan 13 Desember) merupakan hari istimewa bagi umat Hindu di Bali. Jika ada bayi lahir tepat pada hari itu, konon memiliki sifat-sifat ataupun bakat istimewa baik negatif maupun positif.

Menurut salah satu kalender Bali, orang yang lahir pada wuku Wayang memiliki sifat suka disanjung, perintahnya tak bisa dibantah. Namun, ia juga memiliki pribadi yang halus, pandai bergaul, tutur bahasanya halus dan menarik. Apakah pernyataan itu benar, tentu saja jawabannya beragam. Pasalnya, di atas bumi ini, ribuan bahkan mungkin jutaan orang yang lahir pada Tumpek Wayang dipastikan memiliki sifat yang berbeda, tergantung pada kepercayaan, kultur, bakat, lingkungan dan faktor lainnya.

Bagi umat Hindu di Bali, ada keyakinan bahwa anak yang lahir pada Tumpek Wayang memiliki sifat-sifat negatif karena hari itu dianggap memiliki nilai cemer (kotor) yang membawa sial. Anak tersebut dikhawatirkan dirundung malapetaka, akibat dikejar-kejar Dewa Kala. Menurut lontar “Sapuh Leger”, Dewa Siwa memberi izin kepada Dewa Kala untuk memangsa anak yang dilahirkan pada Wuku Wayang.

Untuk memusnahkan sifat-sifat negatif pada anak tersebut serta menghindari bahaya akibat dikejar-kejar Dewa Kala, maka ada solusi yang merupakan keyakinan pula, yakni mohon tirta (air suci) penglukatan atau pengruwatan dari pertunjukan Wayang Sapuh Leger.

Apakah semua itu bisa dipercaya seratus persen? Oleh karena hal ini masalah keyakinan, tentu sulit dijawab dengan pasti. Namun yang jelas, Wayang Sapuh Leger ternyata juga menarik perhatian orang asing. Dalam buku ini ada dikemukakan, pada tahun 2005, seorang warga Prancis menanggap Wayang Sapuh Leger untuk upacara kelahiran putranya. Upacara yang digelar di rumah mertuanya di Baturiti, Tabanan, itu berlangsung khidmat. Apakah ia menanggap Wayang Sapuh Leger hanya untuk jor-joran ataukah memang ia yakin bahwa pertunjukan itu dapat menyelamatkan anaknya?

Oleh karena hal ini masalah yang bersifat irasional, maka sulit dijawab dengan mengemukakan argumenatasi secara rasional. Timbul juga pertanyaan: mengapa Wayang Sapuh Leger yang konon dianggap angker, dan penyelenggaraannya paling berat, sangat mempengaruhi pola pikir umat Hindu di Bali?

Menurut penyusun buku ini, I Dewa Ketut Wicaksana, tidak banyak orang yang menaruh perhatian untuk membuktikan serta mencari jawaban atas penyebabnya.

Kenyataan seperti itu, menurut Wicaksana, hanya diterima begitu saja, tanpa tergelitik untuk menelusuri lebih jauh, untuk menemukan apa yang terjadi di balik konsep penyelenggaraan drama ritual tersebut. Itulah sebabnya, ia tertarik untuk menelusuri, selain ingin mengetahui apa sebenarnya yang ada di balik pertunjukan Wayang Sapuh Leger, juga ingin mengkaji fungsi dan makna pertunjukan wayang tersebut dalam kehidupan sosial budaya masyarakat Bali.

 

Dari Tesis

Penelitian Wicaksana tertuang dalam tesis yang dipertahankan di hadapan penguji Program Pascasarjana Universitas Gajah Mada Yogyakarta pada 1997. Tesis itulah yang kemudian diterbitkan dalam bentuk buku seperti ini, setelah mengalami proses editing seperlunya terutama pada masalah teknis.

Secara garis besar, buku ini terdiri dari lima bab. Bab pertama, Wicaksana menuliskan tentang latar belakang masalah, mengapa ia tertarik meneliti pertunjukan Wayang Sapuh Leger. Sebagaimana penulisan tesis pada umumnya, dalam bab ini, Wicaksana menyodorkan sejumlah teori yang digunakan untuk menjawab permasalahan.

Dalam bab berikutnya, Wicaksana mengungkap tentang genre Wayang Sapuh Leger dalam Wayang Kulit Bali, apa latar belakang dan bagaimana struktur pertunjukan tersebut. Dalam bab ini juga dikemukakan upacara lukatan yang meliputi sesajen, mantram-mantram yang dicantingkan dalam upacara tersebut, pelaku upacara, dan segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan dalang dan Dharma Pedalangan.

Dalam bab selanjutnya, Wicaksana mengungkap struktur estetik pertunjukan Wayang Sapuh Leger, dan pada bab empat, ia menganalisis fungsi dan makna pertunjukan seni sakral tersebut bagi kehidupan masyarakat Bali. Buku ini juga dilengkapi dengan lampiran mantram-mantram yang berkaitan dengan pementasan wayang.

Menurut Wicaksana dalam buku ini, secara eksplisit pertunjukan Wayang Sapuh Leger hanya berfungsi untuk upacara dalam siklus kehidupan manusia. Namun secara implisit, pertunjukan ini menyiratkan adanya upacara Panca Yadnya yakni Dewa Yadnya, Pitra Yadnya, Rsi Yadnya, Manusa Yadnya dan Bhuta Yadnya.

Foto-foto yang ditampilkan dalam buku ini meliputi pertunjukan wayang kulit Sapuh Leger, bentuk-bentuk sesajen yang digunakan, dan ada lima dalang yang ditampilkan. Mereka itu empat dalang dari Gianyar yaitu dalang I Wayan Wija, I Made Sija, I Gusti Putu Darta, I Wayan Narta dan satu dalang dari Buduk (Badung) yakni Ida Bagus Puja. Penampilan dalang tersebut dalam gambar lebih banyak terlihat sedang melakukan upacara ritual.

Buku ini tidak saja penting disimak bagi peminat budaya, ilmuwan (peneliti), tapi juga bagi umum terutama bagi mereka yang ingin menekuni dunia pedalangan. Sayang, buku ini dicetak hitam putih, sehingga foto yang ditampilkan belum memberikan gambaran yang maksimal. Jika fotonya dicetak berwarna, serta lebih banyak menampilkan foto wayang Bali, buku ini tentu saja akan lebih afdol.

* wayan supartha

 



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