ANSAMBEL GENGGONG

Juni 3rd, 2013

Istilah genggong memiliki 2  pengertian, yaitu :

  1. Nama dari salah satu alat yang dibuat dari bahan pupug atau ‘pelepah pohon aren’. Setiap satu alat genggong dimainkan oleh satu orang dengan menempelkan tungguhan genggong tersebut pada mulut, kemudian meniup dan menarik-narik benang yang di hubungkan pada tungguh genggong. Kuat lemahnya tiupan akan menghasilkan tinggi atau rendahnya nada.
  2. Nama dari salah satu perangkat gambelan. Dalam gambelan genggong, tungguhan genggong  jumlahnya paling banyak diantara tungguhan yang digunakan, dan juga dari segi musikal, bunyi tungguhan ini adalah yang paling dominan. Dalam perangkat gambelan genggong, selain digunakan tungguhan genggong, juga digunakan tungguhan lain, yaitu tungguhan kendang (lanang dan wadon ), slober, ceng-ceng, tawa-tawa, klenang, dan gong pulu. Perangkat gambelan ini disebut gambelan genggong kemungkinan besar disebabkan karena dominannya peran tungguhan genggong yang dimilikinya. Dalam perangkat gambelan ini digunakan 6 -10 atau lebih tungguhan genggong yang dibunyikan oleh satu orang. Sedangkan dalam penyajian gending- gendingnya, tungguhan genggong lebih menekankan pada penggarapan melodi  atau gending dengan berbagai jenis pola tubuhnya yang akan membentuk satu jalinan, berupa gabungan pola tabuhan  polos dan nyandet. Dalam hal ini tabuhan tungguhan suling menyajikan melodinya.

Jumlah prangkat gambelan genggong di Bali sangat sedikit dan dapat dikatakan sebagai perangkat gambelan yang sangat langka. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan karena kurangnya daya tarik bagi kawula muda untuk belajar memainkannya. Ketidak tertarikan ini disebabkan diantaranya karena adanya 2 faktor, yaitu fungsi perangkat gambelannya yang sangat terbatas, dan sulitnya permainan tungguhan genggong. Berdasarkan Informasi Seni Organisasi Di Lingkungan Kanwil Debdikbud Propisi Bali Tahun 1995/1996  jumlah perangkat gambelan genggong diketahui ada sebanyak 9 perangkat yang menyebar ke daerah-daerah kabupaten, dengan rincian penyebarannya sebagai beikut :

  1. Di Kabupaten Buleleng, terdapat 1 perangkat
  2. Di Kabupaten Gianyar, terdapat 7 perangkat
  3. Di Kabupaten Karangasem,  terdapat 1 perangkat

 

  • Tungguhan.

Jumlah tungguhan dalam satu perangkat gambelan genggong, pada masing-masing sekehe didapatkan adanya jumlah maupun jenis tungguhan yang berbeda-beda. Perbedaan penggunaan tungguhan dalam satu perngkat merupakan hal yang umum di kalangan karawitan Bali. Alternatif penggunaan tungguhan dalam satu perangkat genggong, salah satunya sebagai berikut:

No

TUNGGUHAN

JUMLAH

1 Tungguhan kendang (lanang dan wadon) 1 pasang
2 Tungguhan ceng-ceng ricik 1 pangkon
3 Tungguhan klenang atau menggunakan guntang 1 buah
4 Tungguhan slober 1 buah
5 Tungguhan kajar 1 buah
6 Tungguhan gong pulu atau guntang 1 buah
7 Tungguhan suling 4 buah
8 Tungguhan genggong 6 – 10 buah
9 Tungguhan kenong 1                    buah

 

 

  • Penataan Gamelan Genggong

      Penataan gambelan Genggong ini biasanya di sesuaikan dengan keperluan atau pun situasi tempat yang ada. Salah satu satu alternatif penataan tungguhan dalam perangkat gamelan Genggong adalah sebagai berikut:

 

9

8

7

7

7

7

6

2

2

3

4

5

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keterangan :

  1. 1.                  Tungguhan genggong
  2. 2.                  Tungguhan kendang( lanang dan wadon)
  3. 3.                  Tungguhan kajar
  4. 4.                  Tungguhan ceng-ceng ricik
  5. 5.                  Tungguhan kelenang
  6. 6.                  Tungguhan slober
  7. 7.                  Tungguhan suling
  8. 8.                  Tungguhan kenong
  9. 9.                  Tunnguhan gong pulu
  • Perkembangan

      Pada perkembangannya sekarang, perangkat Genggong di gnakan untuk mengiringi tari seperti perangkat pada gambelan gong kebyar seperti misalnya, tari Panyembrahma, tari Baris, dan tarian baru yang merupakan susunan seniman-seniman dewasa ini.

 

  • Fungsi

Fungsi gambelan ini sekarang hanya terbatas untuk keprluan hiburan belaka, yaitu untuk menyajikan tari-tarian dan juga gending-gending petegak. Menurut Nyoman Rembang, salah satu pakar dalam karawitan Bali di katakana bahwa konon ceritanya pada masa lalu, tungguhan genggong digunakan untuk mengiringi temanten (pengantin) yang baru saja selesai meminang

 

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