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PERKEMBANGAN GAMELAN GONG KEBYAR DI BANJAR NYUH DESA PED KECAMATAN NUSA PENIDA

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PERKEMBANGAN GAMELAN GONG KEBYAR DI BANJAR NYUH

DESA PED KECAMATAN NUSA PENIDA

 

Gamelan Gong Kebyar merupakan seperangkat gamelan yang dipergunakan untuk mengiringi upacara keagamaan khususnya agama Hindu dan mengiringi tari-tarian. Dalam dekade tahun melenium dunia kebudayaan khususnya kesenian mengalami perubahan-perubahan yang sangat mejolok utamanya dalam dunia Seni Karawitan. Perkembangan ini tidak saja membawa perubahan yang positif, tetapi juga membawa pengaruh yang negatif. Penyebabnya bukan mutlak dari pengaruh dunia kesenian, akan tetapi bersumber dari pengaruh global yang terjadi pada dunia modern ini.

Perkembangan seni karawitan yang belum berkembang di Banjar Nyuh membuat masyarakatnya menjadi belum mengetahui keanekaragaman seni musik di Bali pada umumnya. Seiring perkembangan zaman, masyarakat setempat mulai memikirkan budaya Seni Karawitan yang mereka miliki yang serba terbatas. Mulai sejak itu seni karawitan mulai di munculkan dengan dibentuknya sekaa gong. Keterbatasan dana saat itu yang menyebabkan masyarakatnya sulit membelinya, sehingga masyarakat berinisiatif untuk bersama-sama membuat Gamelan Gong Kebyar.

Tujuan penulisan ini tidak lain untuk mengetahui bagaimana perkembangan Gamelan Gong Kebyar di Banjar Nyuh.  Karena dari zaman ke zaman mengalami perubahan. Yang  dulunya sederhana, sekarang sudah mengalami perubahan sesui dengan perubahan zaman.

 

Perkembangan Gong Kebyar Di Banjar Nyuh

Asal-usul dan perkembangan gamelan tidak tercatat secara akurat seperti sejarah. Namun orang selalu ingat dan merasakan kehadiran gamelan dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Gamelan akrab dengan masyarakat sejak dahulu hingga sekarang. Menulusuri asal-usul gamelan secara ilmiah memang bukan hal yang mudah. Sejak zaman Belanda hingga kini banyak cendikiawan dan budayawan berusaha meneliti dan menulis tentang gamelan. Gamelan yang kita lihat sekarang ini berbeda dengan gamelan masa lalu, begitu pula dengan gamelan di masa depan akan berubah sesui zamannya. Namun perubahan ini tidak terpengaruh terhadap jati dirinya. Karena gamelan memiliki landasan yang kokoh.

Untuk mengungkap perkembangan suatu kesenian seperti seni gong kebyar di Banjar Nyuh, Desa Ped, Kecamatan Nusa Penida sungguh tidak mudah. Kesulitan-kesulitan yang menyebabkannya adalah kurangnya data-data mengenai gamelan tersebut dan hampir tidak ada data-data tertulis yang memuat tentang gamelan gong kebyar tersebut. Namun demikian dari beberapa informasi yang anggota sekaa maupun informan-informan luar yang mampu memberikan keterangan mengenai data-data tentang perkembangan dari gamelan gong kebyar ini.

Misalnya : I Ketut Gede Susila yang menjadi sekretaris (penyarikan) di  Desa Pekraman Banjar Nyuh (wawancara pada tanggal 30 September 2012 di rumahnya Banjar Nyuh) menerangkan bahwa skitar tahun 1960 ada empat banjar yang ada di Banjar Nyuh yaitu; Banjar Tebe, Banjar Ngandang, Banjar Seblange, Banjar Nyuh. Karena pada tahun ini masyrakat terkena wabah penyakit (orang mati mendadak) lambat laun empat banjar ini menjadi satu, yaitu Banjar Nyuh. Di Banjar Nyuh pada saat itu terdapat sebuah kesenian yang disebut Tari Gandrung, Seni Tari Gandrung merupakan salah satu seni tari tradisional yang dimiliki oleh Bangsa Indonesia. Tari Gandrung ini ditarikan oleh 2 (dua) anak-anak yang masih kecil dan digunakan sebagai penolak bala oleh masyarakat.  Setiap ada piodalan di pura-pura desa Tari Gandrung harus dipentaskan dan diiringi dua tungguh Gangse Pemade. Pada waktu itu hanya ada dua buah Gangse Pemade di Banjar Nyuh ini disebabkan karena keterbatasan jumlah masyarakat yang sedikit. Lama-kelamaan masyarakatnya merasa kurang lengkap karena keterbatasan alat musik untuk mengiringi upacara yadnya. Hingga sekitar tahun 1979 masyarakat membeli Gong Baleganjur, yang terdiri dari:

a)      2 (dua) buah kendang yaitu kendang lanang dan kendang wadon

b)      6 (enam) buah cenceng kepyak

c)      1 (satu) reong yang bermoncol/pencon 12

d)     1 (satu) tawa-tawa

e)      1 (satu) gong

f)       1 (satu) kempul

g)      1 (satu) kemong

Pada kisaran tahun 1979 ini, masyarakat hanya menggunakan Gong Baleganjur  sebagai pengiring upacara yadnya. Ketika masyarakat melaksanakan upacara yadnya yang lebih besar seperti “Karya Agung Ngentek Linggih” mereka merasa kurang dengan alat gamelannya, karena gamelan yang dimiliki hanya berupa seprangkat Gamelan Gong baleganjur. Mulai saat itu masyarakatnya mulai merencanakan (planning) untuk membuat seprangkat gamelan yang lebih lengkap yaitu gamelan Gong Kebyar.

Karena masyarakat sudah memiliki sprangkat Gong Baleganjur, Sekitar tahun 1980 ketua (kelian) I Jarna (almarhum) Banjar Nyuh mulai menggerakan masyarkatnya untuk bekerjasama membuat gamelan yang lebih lengkap agar menjadi Gong Kebyar yang dibantu oleh I Duduk (almarhum) yang mengetahui cara pembuatan gamelan dengan membeli. Dengan kerja keras masyarakat untuk menyelesaikannya, akhirnya terselesaiakanlah seprangkat alat Gamelan Gong Kebyar nista (setengah) pada tahun 1981, diantaranya:

a)      9 (sembilan) buah gangsa berbilah (terdiri dari 1 giying/ugal 4 pemade, kantil)

b)      2 (dua) buah jegoan berbilah 5

c)      2 (dua) buah jublag atau calung berbilah 5

d)     1 (satu) tungguh reyong berpencon 12 (reong baleganjur yang dirubah)

e)      2 (dua) buah kendang (lanang dan wadon)

f)       1 (satu) pangkon ceng-ceng

g)      1 (satu) buah kajar

h)      1 (satu) buah gong besar (gong dari gong baleganjur)

i)        1 (satu) buah kemong

j)        1 (satu) buah babende (gong kecil bermoncong pipih)

k)      1 (satu) buah kempli (semacam kajar)

l)        1 kempul (kempul dari gong baleganjur)

Seteleh Gong Kebyar tebentuk, masyarakatnya mulai berinisiatif membentuk kesenian Drama Tari Arja. Bersamaan dengan pembuatan Tari Arja masyarakatnya menggunakan Gamelan Gong Kebyar untuk mengiringi tarian tersebut, yang saat itu dilatih oleh Guru Sifat (almarhum) seniman karawitan alam dari Nusa Lembongan dan I Wayan Sandya (almarhum) seniman karawitan alam dari Sebunibus Desa Sakti. Karena tokoh yang melakoninya tidak lagi aktif dalam kesenian pearjaan, yang disebabkan oleh faktor pernikahan dan pemudanya tidak begitu tertarik oleh kesenian peajaan, jadi lambat laun kesenian Arja punah.

Dari tahun 1982-2008 masyarakatnya masih menggunakan Gamelan Gong Kebyar tersebut. Karena terlalu lama/tua gamelan tersebut, hingga pada tahun 2009 gamelan yang lama diganti, dengan menjual (tukar tambah) gamelan yang lama. Masyarakatnyapun memutuskan untuk mengganti gamelan yang lama agar lebih lengkap, yaitu membeli 1 (satu) barungan Gamelan Gong Kebyar yang terdiri dari:

a)      10 (sepuluh) buah gangsa berbilah (terdiri dari 2 giying/ugal, 4 pemade, kantil)

b)      2 (dua) buah jegoan berbilah 5

c)      2 (dua) buah jublag atau calung berbilah 5

d)     2 (dua) buah penyacah berbilah 7

e)      1 (satu) tungguh reyong berpencon 12

f)       1 (satu) tungguh terompong berpecon 10

g)      2 (dua) buah kendang besar (lanang dan wadon) yangdilengkapi dengan 2 buah kendang kecil.

h)      1 (satu) pangkon ceng-ceng

i)        1 (satu) buah kajar

j)        2 (dua) buah gong besar (lanang dan wadon)

k)      1 (satu) buah kemong (gong kecil)

l)        1 (satu) buah babende (gong kecil bermoncong pipih)

m)    1 (satu) buah kempli (semacam kajar)

n)      4 (empat) buah suling bambu (suling kecil 2 dan suling besar 2)

 

Barungan Gong Kebyar ini sangat berbeda dengan Gamelan Gong Kebyar yang dulu. Karena gamelan yang dulu serawahnya tidak berukir, dan gamelan yang sekarang sudah mengikuti perkembangan zaman, yaitu serawahnya lebih berukir.

2.2 Bentuk Gamelannya :

  • Bentuk Gangsa pada tahun 1960

  • Bentuk Gong Baleganjur pada tahun 1979

  • Bentuk Gong Kebyar pada tahun 1981

  • Bentuk Gong Kebyar pada tahun 2009

 


 

 

Kesimpulan

Jadi perkembangan Gong Kebyar di Banjar Nyuh  mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ketahun. Ini membuktikan masyarakatnya sudah memperhatikan kebudayaan yang dimilki oleh masyarakat Banjar Nyuh, dari masyarakat yang hanya memiliki 2 (dua) tungguh Gangsa, berkembang menjadi Gong Baleganjur, kemudian berkembang lagi menjadi Gong Kebyar dan Gong Kebyar sampai saat ini di Banjar Nyuh masih tetap di pertahankan. Ini sesuai dengan Teori Evolusi yang artinya suatu proses perkembangan masyarakat dari tingkat yang sederhana ketingkat yang lebih tinggi.

 

Kalau evolusi masyarakat dan kebudayaan kita pandang seolah-olah dari suatu jarak yang jauh, dengan mengambil interval waktu yang panjang (misalnya beberapa ribuan tahun), maka akan tampak perubahan-perubahan besar yang seolah-olah bersifat menentukan arah (directional) dari sejarah perkembangan masyarakat dan kebudayaan bersangkutan ( Buku Pengantar Ilmu Antropologi. Hal 194).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Aryasa, I.W.M. 1976/1977. “Perkembangan Seni Karawitan Bali”, Proyek Sasana Budaya Bali. Denpasar.

 

Team Survey ASTI Denpasar. 1980. Sejarah Perkembangan Gong Kebyar Di Bali, Proyek Penggalian, Pembinaan Seni Klasik Tradisional dan Kesenian Baru. Denpasar.

 

Koentjaningrat. 2009. “Pemgantar Ilmu Antropologi”, RINEKA CIPTA. Jakarta.

 

“Komang Suryawan”

 

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