GAMBELAN ANGKLUNG

This post was written by dewamademerta on Maret 29, 2012
Posted Under: Tulisan


Gambelan Angklung adalah seperangkat gambelan Bali yang digolongkan  ke dalam periodisasi golongan tua. Klasifikasi ini menurut pada dua hal yakni pertama, didasarkan atas salah satu jenis fungsi instrument kendang yang dianggap belum memiliki peran signi pikan sebagaimana peran kendang pada gambelan golonagan madya dan baru. Peranan kendang dalam penyajian repertoar dalam gambelan golongan madya dan baru seperti Semar Pegulingan,Pagambuhan,Pelegongan,Kebyar,bebarongan dan yang lainnya memperlihatkan peran yang sangat menonjol sebagai pengatur pengendali( pemurba) irama dan jalannya lagu. Sementara peranan kendang dalam penyajian reportoar gending- gending klasik gambelan golongan tua seperti Angklung , Gong Luang, memang mengindikasikan peran yang kurang dominan sebagaimana peranan kendang dalam jenis gambelan yang tergolong dalam klasipikasi madya dan baru. Kedua, gambelan yang tergolong dalam periode tua seperti Angklung, Gender wayang , Selonding, Gambang, Gong Luang dan yang lainnya mempunyai persamaan dengan relief-relief yang terdapat dalam Candi Penataran di Jawa Timur (Bandem, 1983:51)

Populasi gambelan Angklung cukup popular di Bali. Dibandingkan dengan gambelan golongan tua lainnya, Angklung termasuk mengalami perkembangan yang cukup pesat. Bahkan perkembangannya dianggap sebagai jenis gambelan yang populer setelaah Gong Kebyar, dan Balaganjur. Tahun 1996 saja data statisik menunjukkan bahwa tercatat 690 ansambel gambelan Angklung tersebar di seluruh kabupaten dan kota di Bali

Betuk dan Fungsi

Bentuk Fisik

Di atas telah disinggung bahwa dewasa ini telah ada tiga bentuk ansambel gambelan Angklung yaitu  kembang kirang, Klentangan, dan Don Nem. Pada dasarnya bentuk fisik masing-masing instrumennya tidak jauh berbeda, yakni masing-masing terdiri dari ricikan instrument berbilah (jegogan,tawa)ber-membran (Kendang) dan alat tiup (suling). Yang membedakan adalah jumlah bilah/daun pada tiap tungguhnya, ada yang empat,lima,enam,tujuh sampai delapan bilah.

Secara organologis perangkat gambelan ini terdiri dari beberapa bentuk bilah, beberapa bentuk pencon (reyong,kempul,tawa-tawa), yang bahannya dari perunggu kecuali suling yang terbuat dari bamboo. Secara bentuk fisiknnya di Bali kini berkembang tiga jenis gambelan Angklung Kembang Kirang, Angklung Klentangan, dan Angklung Don Nem. Perbedaan ketiga jenis gambelan tersebut dapat dilihat atau didasarkan jumlah penggunaan nada maupun bilah dalam tungguhan jenis gangsa maupun jegogannya.

 Instrumentasi

–          Sepasang kendang pepanggulan (lanang wadon) berukuran kecil

–          Dua tungguh Jegogan

–          Enam tungguh gangsa pemade

–          Enam tungguh gangsa kantilan

–          Sepangkon ceng-ceng ricik

–          Satu tungguh Klenag

–          Satu tungguh Tawa-tawa

–          Satu tungguh Kempul

–          Satu tungguh Riyong

–          Tiga buah suling

Dlam perkembangannya telah dimasukkan unsure kendangan cedugan besar, kendang gupekan, Ceng-ceng kopyak, rebab, dan gong besar.

Fungsi

Fungsi Upacara

Menurut Radcliffe Brown seni sebagai fungsi social adalah efek dari suatu keyakinan adat atau pranata kepada solidaritas social masyarakat, yang kemudian tatanan itu dianologikan dengan struktur organisme. Jadi fungsi gambelan angklung dalam konteks ini adalah aktivitas aratistik sebagai efek dari kepercayaan. Keterkaitan fungsi gambelan dalam sebuah upacara tidak terlepas dari konsep Pancagita di Bali, yang menyebutkan bahwa sebuah upacara akan dianggap lengkap kalau ada lima unsur bunyi-buyian tersebut antara lain : suara Bajra pendeta,Suara gambelan , Doa-doa dan mantra pendeta, Suara kulkul(kentongan), dan tembang atau kidung-kidung pujian. Berdasarkan konsep ini maka dalam setiap upacara di Bali selalu disertai dengan suara gambelan dan nyanyian.

Fungsi Sakral

Fungsi magis simpatetis gambelan angklung dapat ditemukan di desa Sidan. Pada gambelan Angklung Sidan ada sebuah instrumennya yang berfungsi sebagai pengobatan. Menurut kepercayaan masyarakat pendukungnya gambelan yang dimilikinya daiangagap keramat (sakral) terutama instrument kempul dianggap mampu mengobati orang yang mempunyai kelainan penyakit bisu.

Fungsi  Sosial  Ekonomi

Sebagai sebuah bentuk organisasi propesi yang bersifat tradisional Gambelan Angklung  didukung oleh sebuah organisasi yang disebut sekaa. Organisasi ini dibentuk untuk tujuan-tujuan sosial lebih menonjol. Rasa kebersamaan melalui saling  tolong menolong dan rasa solidaritas sosialnya mampu mempererat kerukunan diantara warga dan kelompok yang lebih luas. Hal ini tercermin melalui aktvitas sosialnya yang tulus dalam membantu warga di sekitarnya tanpa pamrih.

Fungsi Hiburan

Dalam perkembanagannya Gambelan Angklung tidak hanya difungsikan untuk kepentingan mendukung pelaksanaan upacara. Melainkan juga untuk mendukung kepentingan kreativitas seniman dan hiburan. Sebagai wahana kreativitas angklung telah dicoba untuk digarap dalam bentuk tabuh kreasi, ataupun karawitan modern. Melabuh Wedana karya tugas akahir mahasiswa STSI Denpasar tahun 2001 mengambungkan gambelan Balaganjur dan angklung dalam sebuah komposisi baru. Begitu juga Jaya Baya karya Inyoman windha berusaha mengungkapkan Fenomena tragedy Bom Bali lewat komposisi kontemporer dengan menggunakan gambelan angklung yang digabungkan dengan beberapa instrument non-Bali

Kesimpulan

 Dari apa yang tlah diuraikan di atas , dapat di tarik kesimpulan bahwa gambelan angklung termasuk gambelan yang terpopuler dalam priodisasinya. Namun kini, masih kalah pesat dengan perkembangan gong kebyar dan balaganjur. Dalam perkembangannya tidak saja mengalami perubahan dalan bentuk fisik instrumentasi tetapi juga perkembangannya reportoar dan fungsinya dalam konteks kehidupan masyarakan bali.  Ditinjau dari aspek nuansa musikalitasnya secara karakteristik, fungsi utama gamelan ini addalah untuk mengiringi pitra yadnya (ngaben). Kendaatipun demikian, dalam realitas kondisi sosial berrdasarkan konsep desa mawa cara (berdasarkan kebiasaan adat) dan konsep desa kala patra (situasi dan kondisi desa setempat) memunkinkan gambelan angklung untuk mengammbil peran secara fleksibel untuk memenuhi tuntutan kebutuuhan masyarakat pendukungnya . selanjutnya ia tidak saja diposisikan sebagai karawitan yang hanys berkaitan dengan kepentingan upacara ritual, tetapi kini telah diaangkat untuksebuah media kreativitas,lahan olah seni artistik bagi seniman-seniman kreatif sampai menembus jelajah kreativitas seni modern.

Sumber Buku : BHERI Jurnal ilmiah music nusantara

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