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KENDANG BALI

  1.  DEVINISI KENDANG  BALI

Istilah kendang telah disebut-sebut dalam piagam Jawa Kuno yang berangka tahun821 dan 850 masehi dengan istilah padahi dan muraba. Dalam Prasasti Bebetin, sebuah prasasti Bali yang berasal dari abad ke-9, kendang disebut dengan istilah papadaha. Kendang merupakan salah satu instrumen musik yang universal, karena hampir di seluruh belahan dunia dipastikan memiliki alat musik yang tergabung dalam alat musik perkusi. Di Bali kendang tidak bisa dipisahkan dari seni karawitan dimilikinya. Instrumen kendang terdapat pada gamelan golongan madya, yang berfungsi sebagai peminpin dari sebuah barungan gamelan.

Selanjutnya terdapat pada gamelan golongan baru, yang memiliki peranan semakin menonjol dengan teknik dan improvisasi yang semakin kompleks. Di Bali instrumen kendang biasanya dimainkan secara berpasangan dan individu. Jika dimainkan secara berpasangan maka kendang itu dinamakan kendang lanang dan kendang wadon. Kendang lanang ialah kendang yang memiliki suara lebih kecil atau tinggi, sedangkan kendang wadon ialah kendang yang suaranya lebih besar ataupun lebih rendah. Pembagian Instrumen  menurut Curt Sach dan Van Boster  Kendang Bali termasuk ke dalam instrument membranophone. Dimana Sumber Bunyinya di olah dari lebar
sempitnya membran.

 

 2.  JENIS DAN FUNGSI KENDANG BALI

Berdasarkan penelitian yang penulis lakukan ternyata ditemukan adanya

sembilan jenis kendang dalam karawi

tan BaliAdapun kesembilan jenis kendang yang

dimaksud adalah sebagai di bawah ini, diurut dari ukuran yang terbesar hingga terkecil.

1. Kendang mebarung merupakan jenis kendang dengan ukuran yang terbesar dalam

karawitan Bali. Ukuran kendang ini bisa mencapai panjang 185-200cm dengan

diameter antara 74-80cm. Kendang mebarung merupakan salah satu instrumen dari

barungan Gamelan Angklung (selendro empat nada). Jenis kendang ini hanya dapat

ditemukan di satu daerah saja yakni di Kabupaten Jembrana.

2. Kendang tambur merupakan jenis kendang dengan ukuran terbesar kedua. Kendang

tambur dapat dijumpai di Kabupaten Karangasem dan dipergunakan untuk dua hal

yaitu sebagai pelengkap dalam konteks upacara Dewa Yadnya dan juga untuk

mengiringi prajurit kerajaan yang akan berangkat ke medan perang. Kendang tambur

ini mempunyai ukuran panjang sekitar 72cm, diameter tebokan besar 54cm dan

diameter tebokan kecil 44cm. Cara mempermainkan kendang ini dengan

mempergunakan dua buah panggul dengan memukul kedua belah sisinya.

3. Kendang bedug atau bebedug adalah salah satu jenis kendang yang mirip bentuk dan

cara permainannya dengan kendang tambur, akan tetapi memiliki ukuran yang lebih

kecil. Jenis kendang ini merupakan salah satu instrumen dari barungan gamelan Gong

Beri. Jenis gamelan ini dipergunakan untuk musik tarian sakral Baris Cina. Perangkat

barungan gamelan Gong Beri hanya dapat ditemukan di Desa Renon dan Banjar

Semawang, Denpasar Selatan.

4. Kendang cedugan adalah kendang yang dalam teknik permainannya menggunakan

panggul. Oleh karena itu, kendang ini juga disebut dengan nama kendang

pepanggulan. Kendang pepanggulan ini mempunyai ukuran panjang antara 69-72cm,

garis tengah tebokan besar 29-32cm dan garis tengah tebokan kecil 22-26cm.4 Jenis

kendang ini biasanya dipergunakan pada beberapa perangkat gamelan, misalnya Gong

Kebyar, Baleganjur, dan Gong Gede. Kendang pepanggulan dimainkan secara

berpasangan yang terdiri dari kendang lanang dan wadon.

5. Kendang gupekan merupakan salah satu jenis kendang yang cara memainkannya

adalah dengan memukul memakai tangan. Kendang ini digunakan untuk mengiringi

gamelan Gong Kebyar. Kendang ini selain dapat disajikan dengan berpasangan dapat

juga dimainkan secara mandiri atau kendang tunggal. Kendang wadon mempunyai

ukuran panjang antara 67-72cm, diameter tebokan besar 27-32cm dan diameter

tebokan kecil 21-25cm. Kendang lanang mempunyai ukuran serta suaranya lebih

kecil dari kendang wadon. Ukuran panjangnya antara 65-70cm, diameter tebokan

besar 26-29cm dan diameter tebokan kecil 19-22cm.

6. Kendang bebarongan adalah kendang yang secara khusus terdapat dalam barungan

gamelan Bebarongan. Jenis kendang ini mempunyai panjang sekitar 62-65cm, garis

tengah tebokan besar 26-28cm dan garis tengah tebokan kecil sekitar 21,5-23cm.

Kendang bebarongan ini termasuk dalam ukuran kendang yang tanggung

(nyalah:Bahasa Bali), karena ukurannya yang tidak terlalu besar maupun tidak terlalu

kecil. Ada dua cara untuk memainkan kendang bebarongan, yakni bisa dengan

mempergunakan panggul dan bisa juga dimainkan tanpa menggunakan panggul.

7. Kendang krumpungan, kata krumpungan berasal dari kata pung yaitu menirukan suara

kendang tersebut (onomatopea atau peniruan bunyi). Jenis kendang ini dipukul hanya

menggunakan tangan. Kendang ini biasanya dipergunakan untuk mengiringi gamelan

Pegambuhan dan gamelan Palegongan. Kendang krumpungan ini selalu dimainkan

berpasangan yaitu kendang lanang dan kendang wadon. Kendang wadon mempunyai

diameter tebokan besar 24,5-25cm, panjang antara 55-57cm dan diameter tebokan

kecil 20cm. Sedangkan kendang lanang mempunyai diameter tebokan besar 23,5-

24cm, panjang antara 55-57cm, diameter tebokan kecil 19,5-20cm.

8. Kendang batel mempunyai banyak kesamaan dengan kendang krumpungan baik dari

segi bentuk maupun cara memainkannya. Adapun perbedaan antara kendang batel

dengan kendang krumpungan adalah kendang batel memiliki ukuran yang sedikit

lebih kecil dari kendang krumpungan. Selain itu, kendang batel biasanya

dipergunakan untuk mengiringi gamelan Pengarjan dan gamelan Batel Wayang.

Kendang wadon mempunyai diameter tebokan besar 23-24cm, panjang 52-55cm dan

diameter tebokan kecil 19cm. Sedangkan kendang lanang mempunyai diameter

tebokan besar 22-22,5cm, panjang 52-55cm dan diameter tebokan kecil 18cm.

9. Kendang angklung merupakan jenis kendang terkecil dari semua jenis kendang di

Bali. Kendang ini mempunyai ukuran panjang antara 25-27cm, diameter tebokan

besar 12-17cm dan diameter tebokan kecil antara 7-12cm. Karena ukuran dari

kendang angklung ini kecil, maka mempergunakan panggul yang kecil pula.

TEHNIK PERMAINAN DALAM KENDANG BALI

  • MILPIL, Adalah Jalinan pukulan gupekan (memakai tangan) antara tangan kanan dan tangan kanan.
  • BATU-BATU, Adalah pola permainan yaitu pukulan kendang lanang atau wadon apabila kendang wadon memainkan pukulan bebas pada muka kanan sedangkan kendang lanang mengimbangi pukulan keplak pada muka kiri.
  • GEGULET, Adalah jalinan pukulan (menggunakan panggul) antara kendang lanang dan wadon.
  • CADANG RUNTUH, Adalah pukulan yang terdapat pada kendag wadon di muka kanan yang artinyya mengimbangi pukulan dari kendang lanang

 

  4.  PEMBUATAN KENDANG BALI

Langkah pertama yang dilakukan dalam pembuatan KENDANG BALI adalah mencari dewasa ayu – – hari atau waktu yang baik agar mendapatkan keselamatan dalam bekerja dan kendang yang diciptakan nantinya memiliki kwalitas yang baik. Yang diawali dengan mencari waktu untuk menebang pohon yaitu sasih karo, kawulu dan kesanga yang biasanya disebut sasih berag (kurus) yang biasanya menggunakan sesaji berupa canang sari dan segehan. Umumnya kayu yang di pakai adalah kayu nangka/ketewel, kayu intaran dan beberapa jenis kayu lainnya. Setelah kayu dipotong maka tukang kendang akan mencari hari baik untuk bekerja atau nuasen. Menurut informasi dari I Putu Gede Sula Jelantik, hari tersebut adalah hari-hari yang jatuhnya bertepatan dengan dewasa : karna sula, kala geger, aswajag turun dan bojog turun.

Setelah kendang itu selesai digarap lalu di upacarai yang disebut dengan istilah ngupain atau masupati yang bertujuan untuk menghasilkan suara seperti yang diinginkan sekaligus dapat dipergunakan dalam konteks upacara. Setelah semua prosesi ini terlewati maka ada beberapa hal lagi yang harus dikerjakan seperti, membangun bantang dan nukub kendang (memasang kulit kendang).

 

5.  DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Judul buku: Kendang Bebarongan  Dalam Karawitan Bali, Sebuah Kajian Organologi .

Disusun Oleh : I Gde Made Indra Sadguna, SSn,

Tahun Pembuatan: 2010

PENERBIT KANISIUS ( Anggota IKAPI )

Jl. Cempaka no 9, Deresan, Yogyakarta 55281, INDONESIA

Kotak Pos 1125/Yk, Yogyakarta 55011, INDONESIA

Judul buku: BHERI, Jurnal Ilmiah Musik Nusantara, Vol 5

Tahun pembuatan: 2006

Penerbit: d.a. UPT. Penerbitan ISI Denpasar

Jln Nusa indah Denpasar, Telp. 0361-227316

Fax. 0361-236100, [email protected]

 

 

April 23rd, 2013 at 7:35 am


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