ensambel

Posted by putudyantara
Mei 20 2013

 

GONG KEBYAR

 

 

 

 

1.Bentuk fisik

 

Gamelan Gong Kebyar sebagai perangkat atau barungan yang berlaras pelog lima nada ,secara fisik dapat dibedakan menjadi dua model. Pertama, bemtuk fisik daun gamelan yang berbentuk bilah dan berbentuk pencon terbuat dari karawang. Karawang adalah campuran antara timah murni dengan tembaga (Rembang, 1984/1985 : 8). Kadang-kadang gamelan gong kebyar terbuat dari besi atau pelat. Sedangkan kedua adalah tempat dari bilah dan pencon digantung/ditempatkan disebut pelawah. Khusus untuk instrument bilah, pada pelawah ditempatkan resonator yang terbuat dari bambu ataupun paralon. Sedangkan pelawah untuk instrument reyong dan trompong bentuknya memanjang dan di atasnya ditempatkan instrument bermoncol/pencon yang di-cincang dengan tali pada lubang gegoroknya. Penempatan nada-nada kedua instrument ini berjejer dari nada rendah ke nada tinggi (dari kiri ke kanan), sesuai dengan ukurannya besar ke kecil (nirus). Kedua instrument ini tanpa mempergunakan resonator. Sedangkan untuk instrument yang lainnya seperti instrument gong, kempur dan klentong hanya digantung pada trampa yang disebut dengan sangsangan. Selain itu juga instrument kajar hanya ditempatkan pada atas trampe tanpa resonator, sedangkan untuk instrument cengceng gecek, cakepannya diikat pada atas pelawah yang berbentuk kura-kura/empas, angsa ataupun bentuk lainnya. Pelawah gamelan Gong Kebyar memiliki bentuk yang berbedabeda, ada yang mengambil ceritra pewayangan/parwa (epos Ramayana dan Mahabrata) ataupun mengambil ceritra tetantrian atau cerita tentang binatang. Jelas secara bentuk fisiknya telah terjadi perbedaan, walaupun secara substansi barungan Gong Kebyar memiliki persamaan dan telah mengakar di masyarakat. Kualitas bunyi sangat tergantung pada resonator yang dipergunakan. Bahan baku bamboo dipilih secara fisik ukuran bilah dan pencon dalam gamelan gong kebyar disesuaikan dengan fungsi masing-masing instrument dalam barungnya. Sehingga bagaimanapun bentuk fisiknya jelas telah mempertimbangkan aspek-aspek secara total dalam rancangan keberadaan Gong Kebyar saat ini.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.Instrument  bahan fungsi

 

  1. TEROMPONG

Merupakan instrument utama dalam barungan gong kebyar yang mempunyai bentuk memanjang, memiliki sepuluh buah moncol/pencon yang umumnya dimainkan oleh satu orang pemain yang membawa dua buah panggul(alat pemukul ) yang disebut dengan panggul terompong. Terompong biasanya terbuat dari kayu jati, nangka dan kayu sejenisnya yang dirakit sedemikian rupa ditata dan dihiasi dengan ukiran ,di beri cat dasar berwarna merah dan prada. Sedangkan penconnya terbuat dari karawang, perunggu dan ada juga yang dibuat dari bahan besi.

Terompong digunakan dalam gong kebyar biasanya dalam gending-gending lelambatan, tabuh kreasi , pepanggulan , tari-tarian (khusus tari yang memerlukan terompong seperti : tari kebyar terompong dan palawakya) dan lain-lain.

Fungsi dari terompong ini sendiri adalah memainkan dan memperkuat melodi utama gending, memulai gending, menghubungkan ruas-ruas lagu.

 

  1. KENDANG

Kendang lanang -wadon dalam ansambel gong kebyar merupakan satu-satunya instrument perkusi yang mempunyai membran berupa kulit sapi. Masing-masing menggunakan sebuah panggul dalam permainannya kendang lanang dan wadon teramat penting dan tidak bisa dipisahkan peranannya dalam gong kebyar ,saling terhubung saling mengisi dan melengkapi sehingga menimbulkan harmoni antara keduanya.

Kulit atau membran kendang terbuat dari kulit sapi yang telah diolah yang dalam pembuatannya kulit tersebut telah mengalami proses yang cukup lama hingga akhirnya dipasang pada kayu nangka yang dilobangi kedua sisinya. Sebelah kanan lebih besar dari pada yang kiri lalu kedua sisi kendang tersebut dihubungkan dengan kulit sapi yang berupa tali pipih panjang sebagai pengatur kecang kendurnya kulit kendang agar sesuai dengan suara yang diinginkan.

Fungsi kendang:

Sebagai pemurba irama, pengatur jalannya sebuah gending, penghubung bagian-bagian lagu, membuat angsel-angsel, dan mengendalikan irama gending.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. GIYING / UGAL

Giying atau ugal merupakan instrument berbilah dalam barungan gong kebyar yang selalu digunakan dalam setiap jenis gending yang dimainkan tanpa terkecuali.

giying memiliki sepuluh buah bilah yang berarti terdiri atas dua oktaf nada. Setiap barungan gong kebyar di Bali menggunakan dua buah ugal terbuat dari bahan kayu nangka yang didalamnya disisipkan resonator dari bambu yang memiliki panjang berbeda namun tetap dengan diameter yang sama, jumlahnya sesuai dengan jumlah bilah diatasnya yaitu sepuluh buah resonator. Bilah terbuat dari perunggu atau besi.

Fungsinya hampir sama dengan terompong yaitu memulai gending, pembawa melodi, menyambung/menghubungkan ruas-ruas lagu.

 

  1. PEMADE DAN KANTIL

Pemade sering juga disebut dengan ‘gangsa’. Gangsa memiliki bentuk yang sama dengan ugal namun memiliki ukuran yang sedikit lebih kecil sedangkan kantil memiliki ukuran yang lebih kecil lagi dari dari gangsa. Resonator gangsa dan kantil berbentuk sama dengan ugal ,namun lebih kecil karena menyesuaikan dengan ukuran instrument. Dalam satu barungan gong kebyar menggunakan empat buah gangsa dan empat buah kantil yang saling berpasangan dalam hal polos dan sangsih. Memiliki jumlah bilah yang sama dengan ugal namun berukuran lebih kecil.

Perbandingan letak oktaf:

Ugal dengan oktaf satu dan dua, gangsa dua dan tiga,kantil tiga dan empat. Maka dari itu gangsa dan kantil terdiri dari bilah-bilah yang lebih kecil dari pada ugal.

Fungsinya adalah memberi angsel-angsel, mengisi pukulan gending dengan motif-motif pukulan tertentu, mengisi rongga-rongga/ruang antara penyacah dan ugal.

 

  1. RIONG

Riong atau disebut juga dengan ‘reong’ merupakan alat musik pukul berbentuk mirip terompong tetapi terdapat dua belas pencon. Dan dalam gong kebyar dimainkan oleh empat orang pemain yang duduk secara berderet masing-masing memakai dua buah panggul yang ukurannya berlainan sesuai dengan deretan yang ditempati oleh si pemain riong itu sendiri. Riong ini adalah salah satu instrument dalam gong kebyar yang tak kalah memegang peranan penting dibandingkan dengan kendang,terompong, maupun ugal. Reong memiliki ciri khas tersendiri yaitu dalam teknik permainannya menggunakan teknik ubit-ubitan atau kekotekan antara pemain yang satu dengan pemain yang lainnya saling berhubungan dan sangat bervariasi sehingga dalam memainkan riong ini dibutuhkan kerjasama yang baik dan saling pengertian antar pemain.

Fungsi riong sama dengan pemade dan kantil yaitu memberi angsel-angsel,mengisi gending dengan berbagai motif pukulan,mengisi ruang antara penyacah dengan ugal.

 

  1. JUBLAG

Jublag ialah instrument berbilah selanjutnya dari gong kebyar yang terdiri atas lima bilah nada yang cukup besar sehingga menghasilkan nada suara rendah agar dapat memperjelas melodi yang sedang dimainkan memiliki bunyi halus karena pemukul atau panggul yang digunakan diisi atau menggunakan karet di bagian bawahnya. Pelawahnya  terbuat dari kayu nangka atau jati sedangkan bilah nada terbuat dari karawang perunggu atau besi. Jumlah jublag dalam gong kebyar berjumlah dua buah. Pemain jublag dalam hal ini menjatuhkan pukulan jublag yaitu dua kali pukulan jegog. Fungsi jublag yaitu sebagai instrumen yang memperkuat melodi gending , menentukan pukulan jegog.

 

  1. PENYACAH

Bentuk bahan dan fungsi penyacah hampir sama dengan jublag namun penyacah mempunyai bentuk yang lebih kecil dari jublag tetapi  mempunyai bilah nada lebih banyak yaitu tujuh buah. Dalam setiap barungan gong kebyar terdapat dua buah penyacah. Pemain penyacah menjatuhkan pukulan penyacah dua kali pukulan jublag teknik permainannya sangat melodis pada setiap matra lagu.  Fungsi lainnya dari penyacah adalah secara langsung adalah membantu memperkuat dan memperjelas pukulan ugal.

 

  1. JEGOG/JEGOGAN

Terdapat dua buah instrument jegogan dalam barungan gong kebyar. Pelawah dari instrumen ini sendiri memiliki ukuran yang paling besar karena memiliki bilah yang paling panjang dan paling lebar diantara yang lainnya yang juga terdiri dari lima bilah nada seperti halnya jublag. menghasilkan nada suara rendah yang juga berperan dalam membunyikan melodi utama yang dimainkan.  Pemukul / panggul jegog memiliki bentuk seperti pungukul kempul dengan ukuran yang sedikit lebih kecil.

 

  1. GONG KEMPUR DAN KEMONG

Dua buah gong dalam ansambel gong kebyar Bali diberi nama gong lanang dan wadon . Gong di bali pada umumnya memiliki bentuk gong secara umum yaitu sama bentuknya dengan di Jawa, terbuat dari perunggu . Kempur bentuk sama dengan gong namun berukuran sedikit lebih kecil.  Instrument ini berfungsi sebagai pemangku  irama (ritme) dan sebagai pematok ruas-ruas gending serta sebagai pemberi aksen-aksen sebelum jatuhnya gong. Pola pukulannya dapat memberikan identitas ukuran tabuh yang dibawakannya. Seperti : tabuh pisan satu kempur dalam satu gong, tabuh dua ada dua kumpur dalam satu gongnya , dan seterusnya. Sedangkan Kemong berbentuk pencon kecil yang digantung pada tempatnya yang berbentuk melingkar.

Gong, Kempur, dan Kemong , memiliki fungsi dalam menandai dan menentukan satu atau lebih bait melodi berjalan.

Pukulan ketiga instrumen memiliki pola-pola tersendiri sesuai jenis lagu yang dimainkan .

Contoh : gong—pur(kempur)—tong(kemong)—pur—gong—pur—tong ,dst.

 

  1. SULING

Suling merupakan instrument melodis yang dalam komposisi lagu sebagai pemanis gending. Teknik permainan bisa simetris dengan lagu ataukah memberikan ilustrasi gending baik mendahului maupun membelakangi melodi gending. Suling dalam barungan gong kebyar di Bali memiliki beberapa variasi ukuran , ada kecil sedang dan besar yang kesemuanya terbuat dari bambu. Terdapat enam lubang pada suling yang pada saat permainannya dapat membelokkan suara pelog ke selendro sesuai kebutuhan musikalnya.

 

  1. REBAB

Instrument  Rebab merupakan instrument gesek yang dalam barungan gamelan sebagai penyeimbang / harmonisasi lagu. Instrument ini membutuhkan pengeras suara karena secara kualitas suara sangat nyaring, namun tidak mampu menimbulkan suara keras. Sehingga instrument rebab sangat tepat diharmoniskan dengan suling, dan pada saat pementasan dibantu oleh pengeras suara.

 

  1. KAJAR

Instrument ini merupakan salah satu instrument bermoncol/pencon yang berfungsi sebagai pembawa irama. Adapun jenis pukulannya adalah pukulan penatas lampah yang artinya pola pukulan kajar yang mengikuti pola ritme yang ajeg dari satu pukulan ke pukulan berikutnya dalam jangka waktu serta jarak yang sama.

 

  1. CENGCENG KECEK

Secara fisik cengceng kecek memiliki dua bagian yaitu: dua alat pemukul(penekep) disebut buangan cengceng dan cengceng tatakan. Dalam tatakan terdapat kurang lebih lima buah cengceng yang diikat pada pangkonnya. Untuk memunculkan suara, cengceng penekep dipegang oleh dua tangan dan dimainkan dengan cara dibenturkan sesuai tekniknya. Adapun beberapa jenis pukulannya adalah : pukulan malpal,ngecek,ngelumbar dan lain-lain. Sedangkan fungsinya dalam barungan adalah untuk memperkaya ritme/angse-angsel tanpa memakai teknik jalinan.

 

 

3. Notasi, tangga nada sistem pengolahan bunyi

 

 

a)     TEROMPONG

Terompong terdiri atas sepuluh nada dan memiliki notasi serta tangga nada sebagai berikut:

 

,                                 i                                   o                                      e                                         u                                  ,                                 i                              o                                         e                                            u                                       

 

yang dibaca:

ndang, nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang, nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung

dan perbandingan nada pada notasi modern sebagai berikut:

1      3      4      5     7      1      3     4     5      7

Gegebug terompong bernama sekar tanjung susun namanya. Sistem ini adalah gambaran keindahan permainan terompong yang dalam sub teknik seperti: ngembat, ngempyung, nyintud, nyiih asih, nguluin, nerumpuk, ngantu, niltil, ngunda, dan ngoret.

 

b)    KEDANG

Kendang lanang dan wadon dalam gamelan bali khususnya dalam barungan gong kebyar sikap dan teknik pukulan sebagai berikut:

I.            Milpil. Yaitu jalinan antara pukulan tangan kanan dan kiri.

II.            Batubatu. Pukulan lepas, baik kendang lanang maupun wadon pada muka kanan, sedangkan tangan kiri bertugas mengimbanginya.

III.            Gegulet/gilak. Adalah jalinan pukulan lanang dan wadon pada muka kanan.

IV.            Cadang runtuh. Pukulan yaitu pada muka kanan wadon, yang artinya mengimbangi pukulan dari kendang lanang.

 

 

c)     GIYING/UGAL

Pada Giying terdapat sepuluh nada. memiliki tangga nada dan notasi sebagai berikut:

                      o                                       e                                       u                                                ,                                         i                                                o                                       e                                       u                                      ,                                        i

 

dibaca:

ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang, nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang nding

dan perbandingannya pada notasi dan tangga nada modern:

4      5      7      1      3      4      5      7      1      3

Ugal memiliki fungsi sebagai pembawa melodi sehingga teknik permainan dan pukulannya lebih banyak mengikuti melodi utama seperti: ngoret, ngerot, nedet, ngecet, dan neliti.

 

d)    PEMADE DAN KANTIL

Pemade dan kantil memiliki sepuluh nada, seperti halnya ugal:

 

                       o                                       e                                       u                                                ,                                         i                                                o                                       e                                       u                                      ,                                        i

 

dibaca:

ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang, nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang nding

dalam notasi modern:

4      5      7      1      3      4      5      7      1      3

Pemade dan kantil memiliki jenis-jenis pukulan yang banyak dan bervariasi seperti: ngubit, nyekati, norot, gegulet, beburu, oncang-ongcangan, ngoret, ngorot, ngantung, milpil, netdet, nyogcag, asu anuntun saji.

 

e)     JUBLAG JEGOG DAN PENYACAH

Jublag, jegog, dan mempunyai lima nada:

 

                      i                                                o                                       e                                       u                                                ,                                        

yang dibaca:

nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang

Dan dalam sistem notasi modern:

3      4      5      7      1

 

 

Sedangkan pada penyacah terdapat tujuh buah nada yang terdiri dari:

 

                       u                                                ,                                         i                                                o                                       e                                       u                                                ,                                        

 

yang dibaca:

ndung, ndang, nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang.

Yang sama halnya dengan:

7      1      3      4      5      7      1

Jenis pukulan yang terdapat oada jublag, jegog, dan penyacah:

Neliti, nyelah(pukulan tepat pada tempo/kajar), ngempur(dijalankan sesuai pukulan lagu)

 

 

f)      RIONG

Instrument ini memiliki jumlah moncol/pencon sebanyak 12 buah dengan susunan nada :

                       e                                       u                                                ,                                         i                                                o                                       e                                       u                                                ,                               i                                               o                                        e                                                        u

 

 

yang dibaca:

ndeng, ndung, ndang, nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung, ndang, nding, ndong, ndeng, ndung.

Yang dalam notasi modern:

5      7      1      3      4      5      7     1      3     4      5      7

Teknik permainan yang diterapkan adalah teknik ubit-ubitan yang dalam barungan gamelan sepadan dengan cecandetan, kotekan, tetorekan, yang mengacu pada teknik permainan polos dan sangsih seperti : norot, oncang-oncangan, gegulet,nelutur,asu anuntu saji dan lain-lain

 

g)     SULING

Dalam instrument suling, teknik dalam menutup lobang suling atau tekep sifatnya menyesuaikan nada dengan lima nada pelog dan berada pada alur melodi yang sedang dimainkan dalam gong kebyar.

 

h)    REBAB

Wilayah nada rebab mencakup luas wilayah gendhing apa saja. Maka alur lagu rebab memberi petunjuk yang jelas jalan alur lagu gendhing. Pada kebanyakan gendhing, rebab juga memberi tuntunan musikal kepada ansambel untuk beralih dari seksi yang satu ke yang lain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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