LITERATUR MUSIK NUSANTARA I ( Ramayana )

This post was written by putrasena on Mei 22, 2012
Posted Under: Lainnya

       Ramayana adalah sebuah cerita epos dari India yang digubah oleh Walmiki (Valmiki) atau Balmiki. Ramayana terdapat pula dalam khazanah sastra Jawa dalam bentuk kakawin Ramayana, dan gubahan-gubahannya dalam bahasa Jawa Baru yang tidak semua berdasarkan kakawin ini.

Wiracarita Ramayana menceritakan kisah Sang Rama yang memerintah di Kerajaan Kosala, di sebelah utara Sungai Gangga, ibukotanya Ayodhya. Sebelumnya diawali dengan kisah Prabu Dasarata yang memiliki tiga permaisuri, yaitu: Kosalya, Kekayi, dan Sumitra. Dari Dewi Kosalya, lahirlah Sang Rama. Dari Dewi Kekayi, lahirlah Sang Bharata. Dari Dewi Sumitra, lahirlah putera kembar, bernama Lakshmana dan Satrugna. Keempat pangeran tersebut sangat gagah dan mahir bersenjata.

Pada suatu hari, Rsi Wiswamitra meminta bantuan Sang Rama untuk melindungi pertapaan di tengah hutan dari gangguan para rakshasa. Setelah berunding dengan Prabu Dasarata, Rsi Wiswamitra dan Sang Rama berangkat ke tengah hutan diiringi Sang Lakshmana. Selama perjalanannya, Sang Rama dan Lakshmana diberi ilmu kerohanian dari Rsi Wiswamitra. Mereka juga tak henti-hentinya membunuh para rakshasa yang mengganggu upacara para Rsi. Ketika mereka melewati Mithila, Sang Rama mengikuti sayembara yang diadakan Prabu Janaka. Ia berhasil memenangkan sayembara dan berhak meminang Dewi Sita, puteri Prabu Janaka. Dengan membawa Dewi Sita, Rama dan Lakshmana kembali pulang ke Ayodhya.

Prabu Dasarata yang sudah tua, ingin menyerahkan tahta kepada Rama. Atas permohonan Dewi Kekayi, Sang Prabu dengan berat hati menyerahkan tahta kepada Bharata sedangkan Rama harus meninggalkan kerajaan selama 14 tahun. Bharata menginginkan Rama sebagai penerus tahta, namun Rama menolak dan menginginkan hidup di hutan bersama istrinya dan Lakshmana. Akhirnya Bharata memerintah Kerajaan Kosala atas nama Sang Rama.

Dalam masa pengasingannya di hutan, Rama dan Lakshmana bertemu dengan berbagai raksasa, termasuk Surpanaka. Karena Surpanaka bernafsu dengan Rama dan Lakshmana, hidungnya terluka oleh pedang Lakshmana. Surpanaka mengadu kepada Rawana bahwa ia dianiyaya. Rahwana menjadi marah dan berniat membalas dendam. Ia menuju ke tempat Rama dan Lakshmana kemudian dengan tipu muslihat, ia menculik Sinta, istri Sang Rama. Dalam usaha penculikannya, Jatayu berusaha menolong namun tidak berhasil sehingga ia gugur.

Rama yang mengetahui istrinya diculik mencari Rahwana ke Kerajaan Alengka atas petunjuk Jatayu. Dalam perjalanan, ia bertemu dengan Sugriwa, Sang Raja Kiskindha. Atas bantuan Sang Rama, Sugriwa berhasil merebut kerajaan dari kekuasaan kakaknya, Subali. Untuk membalas jasa, Sugriwa bersekutu dengan Sang Rama untuk menggempur Alengka. Dengan dibantu Hanuman dan ribuan wanara, mereka menyeberangi lautan dan menggempur Alengka.

Rahwana yang tahu kerajaannya diserbu, mengutus para sekutunya termasuk puteranya – Indrajit – untuk menggempur Rama. Nasihat Wibisana (adiknya) diabaikan dan ia malah diusir. Akhirnya Wibisana memihak Rama. Indrajit melepas senjata nagapasa dan memperoleh kemenangan, namun tidak lama. Ia gugur di tangan Lakshmana. Setelah sekutu dan para patihnya gugur satu persatu, Rahwana tampil ke muka dan pertarungan berlangsung sengit. Dengan senjata panah Brahmāstra yang sakti, Rahwana gugur sebagai ksatria.

Setelah Rahwana gugur, tahta Kerajaan Alengka diserahkan kepada Wibisana. Sinta kembali ke pangkuan Rama setelah kesuciannya diuji. Rama, Sinta, dan Lakshmana pulang ke Ayodhya dengan selamat. Hanuman menyerahkan dirinya bulat-bulat untuk mengabdi kepada Rama. Ketika sampai di Ayodhya, Bharata menyambut mereka dengan takzim dan menyerahkan tahta kepada Rama.

Dalam kekawin Ramayana disebutkan

 

 

“… tinabih ikang bahiri ring taman …”

artinya

“…bheri ditabuh di taman…”

Mungkin yang dimaksud dalam kekawin di atas adalah gong bheri yang dimainkan/dipukul pada saat raja hendak pergi ke taman, yang mungkin adanya pertemuan para pejabat kerajaan di taman. Selain itu, kemungkinan kalau bheri tersebut ditabuh ketika sedang ada upacara penobatan/ semacam peringatan seperti peringatan persiapan perang.

 

 

Sumber : http://bangsand.blogspot.com/2011/10/amazing-of-gamelan.html

 

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