TUGAS LITERATUR, MERINGKAS BUKU DENGAN TEKNIK CUTING AND GROWING

Mei 1st, 2012
by nyomansaskara

JUDUL BUKU : BEBERAPA CATATAN TENTANG SENI PERTUNJUKAN BALI

DIKUTIP OLEH : DR. I WAYAN RAI S.

PENERBIT : PALAWASARI 1998

 

GAMBELAN GAMBANG DI SEMPIDI

DESKRIPSI, FUNGSI DAN STRUKTUR GENDINGNYA

Gambelan gambang adalah sebuah barungan musik Bali yang menggunakan laras pelog tujuh nada, terdapat dua jenis instrumen, yaitu gangsa atau sering disebut dengan saron dan instrumen yang satu lagi disebut gambang. Jumlah penabuh gambelan gambang berkisar antara 5 sampai 6 orang, tergantung dari banyaknya tungguhan dalam satu barungan. Gangsa atau saron (selanjutnya disebut gangsa saja) merupakan salah satu instrumen berbilah dengan bahan bilah yang terbuat dari bahan perunggu, sebaliknya gambang, meskipun juga merupakan instrumen berbilah, namun bahan bilahnya terbuat dari bahan bamboo. Dalam barungan gambelan gambang, gangsa bertugas sebagai pembawa melodi, sedangkan gambang bertugas untuk membuat kotekan (interlocking figuration).

            Dilihat dari segi sejarahnya, gambelan gambang merupakan salah satu music yang tergolong kedalam jenis gambelan tua yang ada di bali.dari data-data peninggaln sejarah dapat diketahui bahwa gambar-gambar instrumen gambang telah terdapat pada relief candi penatara di jawa timuryqng diduga berasal dari abad ke- XIV.  Selain itu nama gambang juga disebut-sebut pada sebuah literature seperti: malat, panji kuda narawangsa, babad blahbatuh, tambahan pula bahwa gambang telah disinggung pada lontar prakempa.

Penelitian tentang gambelan gambang yang merupakan salah satu musik ritual kita ini telah pernah dilakukan oleh beberapa orang peneliti misalnya: Mc phee (1966), Schlager (1976), Schareman (1980), Bandem (1982/83), Astita dan Rai (1988), dan oleh beberapa orang mahasiswa ASTI denpasar dalam rangka pembuatan skripsi untuk melengkapi salah satu syarat dalam ujian sarjana muda Karawitan.

GAMBELAN GAMBANG DI SEMPIDI

            Gambelan yang dijadikan obyek dalam rangka penulisan ini terletak di Banjar Tengah, kelurahan Sempidi, Kabupaten Badung. Dikalangan masyarakat luas gambelan ini lebih dikenal dengan sebutan gambelan gambang sempidi saja. Gambelan itu kini disimpan di rumahnya Guru Gede Janem. Salah seorang tokoh (guru) dari Gambang sempidi yang telah banyak dikenal oleh masyarakat sempidi, kushusnya pencita gambang bernama I Gede Rai jadi, yang dilahirkan kira-kira pada tahun 1960 dan sampai kini masih aktip memimpin sekaa gambang itu.

 

Instrumentasi

            Seperti yang sudah disinggung di atas bahwa gambelan gambang terdiri dari dua jenis instrumen, yaitu gangsa dan gambang, masing-masing sebagai pembawa melodi dan pembuat kotekan.

            Gangsa : merupakan sebuah instrumen yang berbilah, dengan bahan bilah yang terbuat dari perunggu. Tiap tungguh terdiri dari tujuh bilah, dipasang dengan cara dipatol pada sebuah pelawah yang terbuat dari kayu dan dimainkan dengan sebuah panggul yang terbuat dari kayu atau dari tanduk kerbau. Wujud dari instrumen ini menyerupai gangsa jongkok yang terdapat pada barungan gambela Gong Gede yang ada di bali.

            Gambang : merupakan instrumen yang berbilah juga, dengan bahan bilah yang terbuat dari bahan bambu, umumnya terbuat dari jenis kayu yang bernama tiing pentung atau bisa juga tiing tali. Pada barungan gambelan gambang sempidi, terdapat empat buah tungguh gambang yang digunakan masing-masing dari besar ke kecil disebut : pengenter, pemero, penyelat dan pemelit. Tiap tungguh instrumen terdiri dari 14 bilah dan dipasang dengan urutan nada-nada yang sangat khas.

Teknik Pukulan

            Teknik pukulan dalam gambelan gambang disebut dengan istilah gegebug. Adapun gegebug dari setiap instrumen adalah sebagai berikut :

Gangsa : sebagai instrumen pemegang melodi, gangsa menggunakan gegebub kekenyongan atau sawitan dan gegebug agal atau nagntung. Kekenyongan merupakan gegebub yang jatuhnya tepat pada ketukan (on beat), sedangkan agal adalah sebaliknya.

Contoh:

                        .    .   X  .   X   .    .   X   .   X

                                   A      K            A        k

A= Agal                                  K= kekenyongan

Gambang : gegebug pengenter, pemero, penyelat, dan pemelit dapat dikemukakan secara singkat sebagai berikut:

Pengenter : teknik pukulannya disebut gegebug penganter atau gegebug, megending (bernyanyi), penganter dikatakan memiliki gegebug megending, karena rangkaian-rangkaianya menyerupai seolah-olah sedang bernyanyi.

Pemero : teknik pukulnya disebut gegebug pemero. Berfungsi nyangsot dalam oncang-oncangan.

Penyelat : menggunakan gegebug penyelat dan berfungsi sebagai pemolos dalam oncang-oncangannya.

Pemelit : teknik pukulnya disebut gegebug pemelit. Dan berfungsi nyandet dalam oncang-oncangan.

Laras dan Gending

Laras adalah rangkaian nada-nada dalam satu oktaf dan mempunyai jarak nada (sruti atau interfal) tertentu. Gambelan gambang mengguanakan laras pelog saptanada atau di bali dikenal dengan sebutan Saih Pitu.dari laras pelog saih pitu ini kemudian dapat diturunkan menjadi tiga saih, yaitu saih lima, saih nem dan saih pitu.

 

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