SEKELUMIT CARA-CARA MEMBUAT GAMBELAN BALI

April 24th, 2012

Gambelan merupakan Bebarungan Alat-Alat Seni Suara

            Yang dimaksud gambelan di sini ialah suatu barungan alat-alat seni suara yang bentuk dan komposisinya diatur sedemikian rupa, dipergunakan sebagai srana memanivestasi lagu-lagu yang diinginkan, khususnya lagu-lagu daerah Bali, Jawa, Madura, Sunda, dan daerah-daerah lain di Indonesia. Gambelan atau gamelan tidak hanya terdapat di Bali dan Jawa/Madura saja, tetapi terdapat di beberapa kepulauan di Indonesia.

Bahan gambelan

Gambelan Bali terdiri dari beberapa jenis materi antara lain :

–          Kerawang atau perunggu

–          Besi

–          Bambu

–          Kayu

–          Kulit

–          Kerang

Gambelan Bali yang ada sekarang kebanyakan terbuat dari kerrawang dan terbanyak berbentuk gong kebyar. Sedangkan yang terbuat dari besi, bambu dan kayu jumlahnya sangat kecil.

Perunggu atau Kerawang

            Dalam hal perunggu, Dr.R.Goris dalam bukunya Atlas Kebudayaan Bali halaman 22 mengatakan, “Tentang memakai dan mengerjakan logam-logam, yang kemudian masuk ke Indonesia yaitu berasal dari India Belakang teristimewa dari province : Tongkin. Kira-kira tiga ratus tahun sebelum Tahun Masehi, orang-orang mulai memperdagangkan perkakas-perkakas perunggu dan juga alat-alat besi ke Indonesia. Dengan cepat orang Indonesia sendiri bisa menuangkan perunggu.

Walaupun disebutkan di atas bahwa bangsa Indonesiasudah dapat mengerjakan barang-barang dari perunggu sejak tahun tiga ratus sebelum masehi, tetapi dalam hal membuat kerawang untuk gambelan Bali, baru pada tahun 1966 di mulai oleh I Made Gabeleran seorang pengerajin dalam bidang gambelan di Blabatuh, Gianyar.  Pengetahuan yang dimilikinya didapatkan dengan kursus atau belajar di Semarang, Jawa Tengah di bawah bimbingan gurunya bapak Kuwat dan bapak Majen ahli membuat kerawang dan gambelan di Jawa Tengah.

Bahan baku untuk membuat karawang menurut I Made Gabeleran adalah timah murni dan tembaga dengan perbandingan 3:10. Sebelum I made Gabeleran berhasil membuat kerawang di Bali pada umumnya pande gambelan di Bali mendatang kan kerawang dari Jawa dan beberapa kepulauan di Indonesia. Kerawang yang didatangkan biasanya dalam bentuk kepingan bekas pecahan gambelan yang di sebut “rosokan” (roso’an) sedangkan yang belum pernah dipakai disebut “gongso” atau perunggu.

Besi

Pande gambelan besi di Tatasan, Badung I Ketut Sandi yang berpengalaman membuat gambelan besi sejak tahun 1957 dan berlanjut hingga sekarang, bahwa besi baik untuk gambelan berbilah ialah besi pegan/per pemegang as mobil. Sedangkan untuk yang berpencon adalah besi plat yang tebalnya satu sampai dua inci. Bisa juga digunakan drum tempat minyak yang tebalnya seperti di atas.

Bambu

Gambelan bambu yang berbentuk bilah secara umum disebut rindik. Bambu yang dianggap baik untuk membuat rindik ialah bambu petung. Bambu petung ialah bambu yang terbesar dan terpanjang diantara jenis bambu yang ada di Bali. Bambu petung ada dua macam yaitu petung ulih (buluh) ruasnya lebih panjang, daunnya ada di ujung dan penutup lubang pada bagian ruasnya berlubang, tembus dari satu ruas ke ruas lainnya. Pembuat Gambang dari desa Kerobokan I Redug dkk memilih petung ulih ini untuk Gambang, begitu juga pemain-pemain Gambang dari desa Kapal dan Sempidi, Sedangkan satu alginya disebut petung “godeg”  ruasnya lebih pendek, tampak daun kecil pada pangkalnya dan ruas nya tertutup, tidak berlubang seperti petung ulih. Tukang yang ahli membuat “guntang” memilih bambu ini, karena ruasnya tertutup semua. Gerantang jogged bumbung dan Angklung kocok dapat dibuat dari tiga jenis bambu yaitu bambu santong (sedang), bambu tamblang (tipis), dan bambu jajang (agak tebal dan alot). Banyak pembuat gambelan jogged memilih bambu yang mati tua di temat. Bambu yang demikian mudah dikerjakan dan suaranya lebih bagus (lembut), tapi jeleknya mudah pecah apabila udara panas. Bambu yang dipergunakan untuk suling pada umumnya disebut bambu buluh.

Kayu

            Bilah-bilah gambelan gelunggang yang ada di desa Tenganan terbuat dari kayu kelipa. I Nyoman Gunawan dari desa tsb. yang sedang membuat beberapa bilah gelunggang mengatakan bahwa di bagian pegunungan desa Tenganan banyak terdapat kayu kelipa. Pada masa-masa lalu kayu nagka (ketewel) sering digunakan untuk bilah rindik gandrung di Tega, Denpasar. Rebab pada mula nya dibuat dari batok kelapa resonatornya, sekarang sudah memakai kayu.

Proses Membuat Gambelan

Pencampuran bahan

Di dalam tungku dapur khusus dibuat untuk peleburan kerawang. Setelah semua tembaga itu masuk dan cair, mulailah memasukan timah murni, selama proses pencampuran harus sering diaduk agar tercampur dengan rata. Setelah tiga jam proses pembakaran cairan kerawang ini di tes dengan mengambil sedikit dan dituangkan ke dalam cetakan, setelah beberapa menit cairan ralandasan besi. Dengan melihat hasil tempaan ini dapat diketahui kerawang sudang matang atau belum.

Mencetak laklakan

Istilah laklakan di sini adalah lempengan-lempengan kerawang/perunggu yang baru selesai dicetak. Lempengan ini bakal bilah maupun terompong yang belum pernah ditempa, semua itu disebut laklakan. Laklakan bakal bilah gender, jublag dan jegogan berbentuk segi empat panjang dan pipih. Sedangkan laklakan bakal terompong, reyong dan alat-alat bermencol lainnya berbentuk setengah lingkaran.

Nguad

Pekerjaan membangun setiap jenis-jenis alat gambelan dari kerawang disebut “nguad” artinya memperpanjang atau memperlebar bahan yang dikerjakan itu. Dalam hal ini pekerjaan membuat lurus, bengkok, lengkungan, bulatan dan sebagainya termasuk pekerjaan nguad. Di sini berarti mengembangkan bentuk laklakan ke arah bentuk baru atau yang diinginkan.

Membangun Bilah

            Seperti yang kita ketahui, bahwa kerawang yang baru selesai dicetak, baik calon alat yang berbilah maupun yang berpencol, adapun membangun bilah gender atau kantilan dapat dikerjakan empat bilah bersamaan (satu angkatan) dengan tahap sebagai berikut :

–          Natap : Ambilah empat buah bilah bakal gender yang ukurannya sama, kemudian masukan ke dalam dapur dan tutup dengan arang. Dengan demikian api akan membakar seluruh permukaan bilah. Kalau laklakn sudah cukup merah, diangkat dan ditempa di atas landasan penguadan dan ditempa dengan palu penguad. Keempat bilah ini dikerjakan silih berganti sampai bentuknya menjadi sama. Pekerjaan pada tahap pertama ini disebut “natap” yang artinya meratakan semua sisi bilah dan memperpanjang ukurannya dari ukuran semula.

–          Ngedonin : Ngedonin artinya membangun daun dan sekaligus membuat “usuk” (gusi) gender.

–          Ngesongin : Ngesongin artinya membuat lubang pada bilah. Tiap satu bilah diisi dua lubang letaknya pada titik seperempat dari ukur panjang.

–          Ngeracap : Ngeracap artinya membenahi pinggiran-pingiran bilah supaya lurus dan rapi sehingga menata bekas-bekas sentuhan palu.

Membangun Alat Bermencol

Membangun atau nguad alat-alat gambelan yang berpencol dasarnya tidak jauh berbeda dengan mengerjakan yang berbilah. Adapun tahap-tahapan mebuat gambelan berpencol sebagai berikiut:

–          Membuat luas ukuran terompong : Pukul-pukulan palu pada tahap awal diarahkan pada tujuan memperluas laklakan hingga seluas muka terompong yang diinginkan.

–          Membentuk cobekan : Pukulan-pululan palu mulai diarahkan untuk membuat lekukan yaitu bagian pinggiran laklakan semakin diangkat naik sedikit demi sedikit dan pada akhirnya akan berbentuk mangkok. Mangkok itulah yang disebut “cobekan”.

–          Ngincep dan nyeracap cobekan : Cobekan yang baru jadi, bagian lambe (kaki) tampak kaku, karena masih tegak lurus kebawah, kini bagian lambe itu dibuat melengkung kedalam agar kelihatan luwes atau tidak kaku lagi. Pekerjaan ini disebut “nyeracap”.

–          Nyigen : Cobekan yang baru jadi itu dimasukan ke dalam air, untuk memastikan apakah ada pecah atau tidak. Jika ada pecah akan ditambal dengan cairan kerawang. Tambalan ini harus diratakan dengan kikir agar tebalnya sama dengan bagian disekitarnya. Pekerjaan ini disebut “nyigen” (ngelas).

–          Ngemoncolin (membuat pencol) : Pada titik tengah itu sudah direncanakan untuk membangun moncol. Oleh karena itu pada bagian tersebut keadaannya masih tetap tebal dari pada bagian lainnya. Sebelum titik moncol itu dikerjakan, sudah diberi tanda dahulu dengan kapur sirih. Tanda tersebut sebagai pedoman bagi tukang pukul, agar lebih mudah membuat pencol.

–          Membuat usuk mua dan pejungut : Cobekan yang sudah ada moncolnya kini mulai dibuatkan usuk (gusi), yang sekaligus berarti membuat mua (muka) dan pejungut (batas lingkaran pojok sisi) dari pada terompong itu. Adapun titik garis yang akan dijadikan lingkaran usuk adalah tepat pada titik garis lurus lingkaran pengilat yaitu  ujung kaki terompong.

–          Nyepuh : Pekerjaan terkahir menggunakan api disebut “nyepuh”. Nyepuh adalah terompong maupun bilah sudah dianggap selesai dibangun dan diatur nadanya, dipanaskan kembali hingga merah jingga, kemudian diangkat dan dimasukan ke dalam air. Setelah dingin diangkat dan dibersihkan. Inilah yang disebut nyepuh, pekerjaan yang terakhir dari semua pekerjaan.

–          Membersihkan dan membuat lubang gegorok : Alat gmbelan yang baru selesai disepuh masih berwarna hitam. Cara membersihkannya yaitu dengan kikir, kemudian dikikis dengan panggur dan terkhir digosok dengan batu kembung atau dengan amril. Setelah seluruh sisinya kuning, digosok dengan braso agar mengkilap. Kemudian dibuatkan lubang gegorok. Fungsinya adalah untuk mengikatkan pada terampa/selawahnya.

Mepatutan

            Pekerjaan ini sekarang lebih dikenal dengan melaras, yaitu mengatur tinggi rendahnya nada dan umbang isep gambelan di dalam satu barungan. Cara-cara yang dilakukan antara lain :

–          Melaras gambelan yang berbilah : Meningkatkan nada, ujung bilah  dikikir sedikit demi sedikit nada akan menjadi semakin tinggi. Menurun atau merendahkan nada dipanggur (dikikis) pada bagian bawah bilah.

–          Melaras terompng : Memukul dari dalam/perut bagian muka terompong mengikiuti lingkaran diantara garis usuk. Nadanya akan semakin tinggi. Jika muka terompong dipukul dari luar, maka nadanya akan semakin rendah.

Mumbungin

Gambelan yang berbilah memerlukan bumbung (resonator). Biasanya menggunakan bambu disebut “tiying tamblang”. Resonator tergantung dari besa kecilnya bilah. Hubungan artara  bilah dengan bumbung tidak dibuat sama, melainkan nada bumbung sedikit lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian hasil kontak (saling mendukung) dirasakan lebih baik. Tukang laras gambelan Bali sampai saat ini masih menggukan pendengaran dan perasaan saja dan belum pernah menggunakan alat modern yang mampu mencatat getaran suara.

Bunyi ngumbang isep

            Yang dimagsud ngumbang isep adalah suara ngombak pada gambelan. Menurut ilmu akustika bunyi ngombak gambelan terjadi karena perbedaan frekuensi didalam satu detik dari dua sumber bunyi. Adapun frekunsinya sebagai berikut :

–          Nada-nada jegogan : 4Hz dan 5Hz setiap detik.

–          Nada-nada pemade : 5Hz.6Hz dan 7Hz tiap detik.

–          Nada-nada kantil : 7Hz.8Hz dan 9Hz tiap detik

Alat yang digukan mengukur waktu itu disebut SIRENE.

Membuat Gambelan Dari Besi

Membuat gambelan dari besi tidak dimulai dari mencetak laklakan, melainkan dari nguad (menteng). Hal ini disebabkan bahan yang dibeli sudah berbentuk bilah. Hanya panjang lebarnya dan juga tebalnya yang perlu diatur dengan memotong supaya menyerupai bentuk laklakan bakal bilah gambelan.kemudian potongan-potongan itu di bakar/dipanaskan lalu di tempa. Dan prises selanjutnya sama dengan pembuatan gambelan karawang, hanya beberapa perbadaan yang perlu di perhatikan yaitu :

–          Membersihkan gambelan besi hanya menggunakan gerinda dan kikir saja tidak menggunakan alat panggur.

–          Melaras gambelan besi cukup menggunakan palu saja.

Membuat Alat-alat Bermoncol

            Besi plat di potong-potong menyerupai bentuk muka terompong dengan ukuran yang sudah di tentukan dan untuk membuat moncolnya sama dengan membuat moncol terompong gambelan karawang.kemudian besi plat lainnya dibangun melalui pemanasan dan penempaan untuk membentuk kaki terompong. Bentuk lngkaran kaki terompong disambung dengan dilas. Untuk menaik dan merendahkan nadanya sama seperti mengatur nada terompong dari karawang.

Membuat Gambelan Dari Bambu

Membuat gambelan dari bambu caranya adalah sama semua, yang berbeda hanya ukuran panjang lebar dari pada bilah dan tentang hal larasnya. Mengenai cara melaras prinsipnya sama dengan meelaras gmbelan dari kerawang, yaitu dipotng sedikit demi sedikit untuk menaikan nadanya dan untuk merendahkan nadanya dikikis pada bagian perut bilah bambu itu sendiri.

Membuat Gambelan Dari Kayu

Kedua jenis gambelan ini sama Cuma bahannya saja yang berbeda. Cara membuat bilah-bilah gambelan ini persis sama dengan membuat gambelan dari bamboo yang berbilah. Cara melarasnya pun juga sama, untuk menaikan nada dipotong sedikit demi sedikit pada bagian ujung bilah dan untuk merendahkannya dikikis pada bagian perut bilah.

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