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Kakawin Totaka

Pengertian dan Asal-usul Kekawin

Kekawin berasal dari kata “kawi” mendapat awalan ke dan akhiran an, menjadi kekawin. Kawi artinya Buat, susun, gubah, karang. Jadi kekawin dapat diartikan buatan, susunan, gubahan, dan karangan. Atas dasar pengertian tersebut , maka kekawin adalah puisi yang dibuat atau disusun dengan menggunankan bahasa Jawa Kuno. Puisi ini mengambil bentuk dari puisi para pujangga India kuno yang berbahasa Sansekerta. Kekawin biasa juga disebut dengan istilah lain, yaitu wirama, tembang gede dan sekar agung.

Dalam bahasa sehari-hari, ada beberapa istilah dalam menembangkan karya sastra, seperti kekawin, yaitu mabebasan, mapepaosan dan makekawin. Mabebasan artinya melagukan kekawin dengan terjemahannya. Dengan kata lain mabebasan berarrti kegiatan menyanyikan teks kekawin, kidung, atau macepat yang di ikuti dengan terjemahannya. Mapepaosan artinya melakukan kegiatan atau aktivitas pembacaan kekawin serta terjemahannya. Makekawin artinya melakukan hasil karya penyanyi atau melagukan puisi Jawa kuno, dengan memakai tembang India, yang diikat oleh aturan Guru Laghu. Dalam makekawin belum terkandung unsur penerjemahannya. Jadi makekawin belum dapat dikatakan mabebasan.

Menurut dugaan kekawin digubah di Jawa, pada abad IX – XV. Sekitar abad XVI, di Bali tumbuh dan berkembang pesat sampai saat ini, khususnya dalam rangkaian upacara adat dan upacara agama, kekawin di bacakan dengan pepaosan dan mabebasan. Kekawin atau puisi-puisi India Kuno ini dibawakan berdasarkan guru laghu  dan wretta matra.

Fungsi Kekawin

Seperi halnya sekar alit, kidung, maka kekawin digunakan sebagai pengiring upacara yadnya (panca yadnya). Dalam kehidupan masyarakat Bali, aktivitas makekawin lebih di titik beratkan pada kegiatan upacara pitra yadnya. Kegiatan tersebut di mulai dari meninggal, ngeringkes, berangkat ke kuburan, penguburan / pembakaran jenasah, ngereka, nganyut, ngerorasin sampai ngelinggihang. Kekawin tersebut dinamakan kekawin Pitra Yadnya.

Kegiatan mabebasan dilakukan semalam suntuk. Keahlian tata bahasa kawi dan tata bahasa Bali amat diperlukan oleh pembaca maupun paneges kekawin. Kekawin yang biasa digunakan  dalam upacara Dewa Yadnya adalah Merdukomala, Totaka, Indrawangsa, Pratiwitala. Untuk upacara Manusa Yadnya, adalah Wangsastha, Seronca, Wipula, Sardula, Sekarini. Dan kekawin yang biasa difungsikan dalamupacara Pitra Yadnya adalah wirama Indrawangsa, Aswalalita dan Girisa.

Syarat-syarat Kekawin

Dalam mempelajari kekawin ada berbagai cara, antara lain dengan system guru laghu, dengan pola melodi, dan biasa pula dengan cara pemberian tanda-tanda garis lurus, naik dan turun. Masalah Ritme dapat diatur dalam penulisan melodi dengan menyesuaikan guru laghu kekawin yang bersangkutan.

Syarat-syarat kekawin :

a.              Tiap bait kekawin terdiri atas 4 baris ( kecuali kekawin Raitiga memiliki 3 baris dalam tiap baitnya ) keempat baris tersebut memiliki :

1.      Pengawit ( penyemah atau pembuka )

2.      Penampi ( Pengisep )

3.      Pengumbang

4.      Pemalet ( penutup )

b.              Tiap baris suku katanya tetap sama sesuai dengan ketentuan yang ada pada tiap         jenis kekawin kecuali Seronca.

c.              Memakai Guru dan Laghu.

d.             Suku kata terakhir boleh Guru, boleh Laghu

Guru dan laghu dalam kekawin merupakan pola dasar dalam pembentukan puisi Jawa kuno atau kekawin. Secara Etimologhi guru laghu terdiri dari dua kata, yaitu guru dan laghu. Dalam hubungannya dengan kekawin, maka Guru itu artinya suara berat, suara panjang dan beraturan. Dalam hukum kekawin maka guru diberi tanda garis datar ( — ), sedangkan kata Laghu sehubungan dengan aktivitas mabebasan artinya suara pendek, kencang dan ringan. Dalam hukum kekawin laghu ditandai dengan tanda garis melengkung ( È ). Berdasarkan pengertian tersebut maka dikatakan bahwa guru laghu berarti hukum kekawin tentang berat, ringan, panjang, pendek dan kencangnya suara dalam menyanyikan kekawin.

Bentuk Kekawin

Dalam aturan kekawin dikenal adanya Wretta dan Matra, untuk menyusun kekkawin. Wretta adalah jumlah suku kata dalam satu baris kekawin. Matra adalah susunan atau komposisi guru laghu dalam satu bait kekawin.

Perhitungan guru laghu dalam satu baris kekawin dibagi 3 ( tiga ) suku kata. Perhitungan atas tiga suku kata dalam kekawin disebut Gana. Dalam satu baris kekawin terdiri dari beberapa gana, setiap gana terdiri dari tiga suku kata, yang berkedudukan sebagai guru atau laghu.

Jenis – jenis Kekawin

Dibawah ini adalah bermacam-macam kekawin beserta jumlah guru laghunya :

1.       Girisa                    = 16

2.       Wangsastha          = 12

3.       Merdukomala       = 18

4.       Wirat                    = 23

5.      Totaka                   = 12

6.      Sekarini                 = 17

7.      Seronca                 = 10

8.      Aswalalita             = 23

9.      Indrawangsa         = 12

10.  Wipula                   = 8

11.  Basanta                 = 14

12.  Rajani                    = 17

13.  Pratiwitala             = 17

14.  Raitiga :

– Wirat                   = 20

– Sronca                 = 11

– Swandewi           = 13

15. Praharsini              = 13

16. Sardula                  = 19

17. Wiralata                 = 16

18. kilayu manedeng   = 22

19. Sragdara                = 21

20. Sarisi                     = 11

Kekawin Totaka

Struktur Kekawin Totaka

WIrama atau Kekawin Totaka ini dipetik dari buku Kekawin Arjuna Wiwaha, halaman 38 pupuh ke 11 yang dikarang oleh Empu Kanwa. Wirama totaka biasanya berfungsi sebagai pengiring upacara Dewa Yadnya. Banyaknya guru laghu wirama Totaka adalah 12, dimana dalam satu bait terdiri dari 4 baris dan masing-masing barisnya terdiri dari 12 suku kata.

Wirama Totaka

Guru laghu = 12

È È È È È È È È È
SA SI WIM BA HA NENG GA T, ME SI BA NYU
NDA NA SING SU CI NIR MA LA, ME SI WU LAN
I WA MANG KA NA, RA KWA KI TENG KA DA DIN
RING A NGAM BE KI YO GA, KI TENG SE KA LA

Makna Kekawin Totaka

Sasi wimba haneng gata, mesi banyu.

– Arti dalam Bahasa Bali :

“Sekadi lawat bulane sane wenten ring june, madaging toya”.

– Arti dalam Bahasa Indonesia :

“Seperti bayangan bulan yang terlihat pada jun ( tempat air ), yang berisi air”.

Ndanasing suci nirmala, mesi wulan.

– Arti dalam Bahasa Bali :

“Sakewanten wantah sane ening tanpa teleteh kewanten, madaging lawat bulan”.

– Arti dalam Bahasa Indonesia :

“Tetapi hanya pada air yang bersih tanpa kotoran saja bayangan bulan itu akan nampak”.

Iwa mangkana, rakwa kiteng kadadin.

– Arti dalam Bahasa Bali :

“ Sakadi punika paduka Batara ring saluiring panumadiane”.

– Arti dalam Bahasa Indonesia :

“ Seperti itulah Tuhan dalam kehidupan ini”.

Ringangambeki yoga, kiteng sekala

– Arti dalam Bahasa Bali :

“ Ring sang ngincepang tapa brata, paduka Batara pikanten nyekala”

– Arti dalam Bahasa Indonesia :

“ Hanya pada manusia yang taat melaksanakan yoga Tuhan itu akan menunjukkan diriNya secara nyata.

Makna dari kekawin totaka ini jika dilihat dari arti syair tiap barisnya, diungkapkan bahwa manusi agar bisa menemukan atau melihat Tuhan dalam berbagai manefestasinya secara nyata merupakan sesuatu yang sangat sulit. Dalam kekawin ini Tuhan di ibaratkan seperti bulan, manusia seperti jun (tempat air) dan air merupakan segala sifat manusia. Bayangan bulan hanya bisa terlihat pada jun yang berisi air yang benar-benar bersih, jika jun berisi air kotor atau keruh, sedikit pun tidak akan terlihat bayangan bulan. Begitu juga dengan manusia, jika ingin melihat, menemukan, atau merasakan keberadaan Tuhan, manusia haruslah bersih atau suci secara lahir bathin tanpa adanya sifat keduniawian di dalam diri, untuk mencapai hal ini memang smembutuhkan prosen yang sangat panjang dan harus diimbangi dengan keyakinan dan kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.

Jika sudah memiliki niat yang baik, dan mau untuk berusaha kita pasti akan mencapai apa yang kita inginkan.


Juni 19th, 2011 at 4:37 pm




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