TRADISI LAYANGAN DI BALI

  • Selasa, September 17th 2013

Menginjak bulan Juni, Juli hingga Agustus, langit Bali akan terlihat berbeda. Birunya langit bali akan terasa lebih indah dengan hiasan puluhan bahkan ratusan layangan beraneka jenis yang menari, berlenggak-lenggok mengikuti irama angin. Musim layangan adalah musim yang dinanti-nanti kehadirannya utamanya oleh anak-anak. Musim kemarau yang cerah akan disambut dengan ceria oleh anak-anak Bali dengan menerbangkan layang-layang.

Entah sejak kapan tradisi memainkan layangan dimulai di Bali, tetapi tradisi ini sangat erat kaitannya dengan budaya agraris. Para petani yang berhasil memanen hasil pertaniannya, akan mengisi waktu senggangnya dengan membuat serta bermain layang-layang. Lahan sawah yang lapang setelah dipanen, menjadi arena yang pas untuk menaikkan layangan. Kehadiran layangan di areal persawahan menjadi wujud syukur dan ungkapan suka cita mereka terhadap anugrah panen yang diterima.Dalam kepercayaan masyarakat Bali, bermain layangan adalah memuja kebesaran dewa Siwa sebagai dewa angin. Pengerajin (undagi) layangan sering disebut sebagai Rare Angon (anak kecil pengembala sapi) yang diyakini sebagai anak-anak kesayangan dewa Siwa.

Cukup banyak jenis layangan di Bali. secara umum dapat dibagi menjadi dua yaitu layangan tradisi (trdisional) dan layangan kreasi (modern). Yang termasuk layangan tradisi yaitu bebean, jangan, dan pecukan. Layangan ini banyak mengambil bentuk dari wujud-wujud yang ada di alam. Seperti halnyabebeanberasal dari kata be yang berarti ikan. bentuknya menyerupai ikan, memiliki sirip dan ekor serta ketika mengangkasa meliak-liuk mirip ikan berenang. Sedangkan pecukan, bentuknya sangat sederhana menyerupai daun yang tertiup angin. Jenis yang paling anggun dan spektakuler adalah jenis jangan. bentuknya mengambil binatang mitologi naga. Jenis jangan merupakan pengembangan dari jenis pecukan, yang dilengkapi dengan kepala naga dan ekor yang sangat panjang hingga ratusan meter. Ketiga jenis layangan tradisi tersebut biasanya akan dilengkapi dengan guwangan yaitu instrumen bunyi-bunyian yang dihasilkan dari tiupan angin terhadap pita yang dibentangkan dengan bambu. Perpaduan antara gerak atau tarian layangan dan suara guwanganmenjadi satu gelar pertunjukan yang sangat dinikmati pencinta layangan tradisi di Bali.

Perkembangan layangan di Bali semakin semarak dengan banyaknya ragam jenis layangan kreasi yang terus bermunculan. Jenis ini merupakan jenis baru hasil kreasi pengrajin (undagi) layangan. Bentuk-bentuknya sangat beragam, tidak hanya mengambil rupa burung dan binatang tetapi juga mampu menyerap bentuk dari kondisi dan fenomena yang tengah trend di masyarakat. Seperti mengambil wujud tokoh populer di televisi, (batman, drakula, upin ipin), atau menampilkan kegiatan sehari-hari (orang mengayuh sepeda, wanita menjunjung sesaji, naik pesawat terbang, dsb) yang cenderung berwujud tiga dimensi. Pada layangan kreasi, kreator layangan lebih terfokus pada permasalahan airodinamika dan tema layangan.

Dewasa ini, tradisi memainkan layangan tidak hanya digemari oleh anak-anak kecil, tetapi juga dicintai oleh orang dewasa. Pada musim layangan akan banyak ditemui penyelenggaran festival layangan, dari tingkat desa hingga bertaraf nasional dan internasional. Salah satu festival layangan yang paling tua di Bali adalah yang diselenggarakan oleh Persatuan Layang-layang Indonesia (Pelangi) Bali. festival ini telah berlangsung sejak tahun 1978, dengan mengambil tempat di sisi Barat pantai Padang Galak Denpasar. festival ini melibatkan ribuaan penggemar layangan dari seluruh Bali dan menghadirkan ratusan layangan super jumbo yang berukuran puluhan meter dan jenis jangan yang memiliki panjang ekor hingga ratusan meter. Di sini ditampilkan suatu kerjasama dan kebersamaan tim dalam menaikkan layangan super jumbo yang  membutuhkan tenaga 20 hingga ratusan orang. Semua perbedaan seakan larut diantara debu dan pasir yang berterbangan mengikuti tarian layangan menuju angkasa, untuk menghibur rasa. Layangan sebagai tradisi yang digemari oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat Bali. melestarikan layangan adalah melestarikan dan mengenalkankearifan Bali yang menjunjung tinggi nilai kebersamaan dan spiritualitas kepada generasi selanjutnya.

Agus Eka Cahyadi

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