Bhagawad Gita

 

Latar belakang peristiwa ‘Bhagawad Gita’ adalah kisah perang Mahabarata yang melibatkan pihak Pandawa dan pihak Kurawa. Pandawa berarti suci dan bersih dengan kata lain simbol ‘kesucian’, Diwakili oleh keluarga pandu yang. Kurawa adalah symbol kekuatan nafsu, amarah, tamak, Kecongkakan dan dengki diwakili oleh 100 keturunan dari Dritharashta secara simbolis medan pertempuran itu sendiri memiliki dua nama, nama asal adalah Dharma Kshetra ( yakni tempat historis & suci ), sedangkan nama yang kedua adalah Kuru Kshetra ( yakni medan pertempuran ). Arti simbolis kedua nama ini adalah : berawal dari kelahiran sebagai bayi yang suci bahagia dan banyak tertawa karena tak mengenal dosa, harus beranjak dewasa dan berbuat banyak dosa sehingga harus berjuang di medan pertempuran agar kembali menjadi bayi yang murni. Jalannya peristiwa Arjuna penengah Pandawa  maju dalam peperangan dan menaiki kereta yang dikusiri oleh Kresna. Menyaksikan bahwa lawan dan kawan yang pada kaki katnya adalah teman, kerabat dan saudara, maka Arjuna menjadi lemah hati dan bermaksud untuk mengundurkan diri dari peperangan. Saat itulah Kresna bergeser fungsi menjadi Sang Guru yang memberi wejangan-wejangan dalam dialog yang disebut dengan ‘Bhagawad Gita’. Inti wejangan Kresna : Manusia (wayang) memiliki dua keakuan yang mendasar, bentuk keakuan pertama adalah aku yang berwujud ragawi, badan kasar yang menjadi wujud lahir ialah manusia, keakuan ini melahirkan banyak keterikatan seperti : negaraku, milikku, mobilku, perusahaanku, istriku dll. Sedang keakuan kedua adalah Aku besar yang berada dalam samudra kalbu manusia, diri yang sejati inilah yang memberi pertimbangan baik dalam diri manusia. Arjuna maju kemedan perang dan menyaksikan keluargaku, kerabatku, temanku, saudaraku harus bertempur dan salah satu pihak akhirnya harus lenyap. Inilah yang memberatkan hati & pikirannya. Keterikatan akan keakuan yang kecil inilah yang mengakibatkan terjadinya duka &  derita, maka Kresna memberi wejangan pada Arjuna agar meninggalkan sifat lemah dan dengan gagah berani harus maju bertempur dan mengalahkan segala keangkara murkaan. Makna yang terdalam manusia, seperti halnya Arjuna, harus berani maju kemedan pertempuran, berpihak pada keakuan yang besar dan dengan gagah berani harus mengalahkan segala keterikatan keakuan yang kecil (yang dipenuhi oleh keangkara murkaan). Peperangan batin ini tidak lah pernah akan berakhir selama hidup manusia.

Dalam kitab Bhagawad Gita ini tertulis bahwa pada saat dimulainya suatu peperanagan para pasukan Pandawa dan Kurawa memakai instrument bunyi tertulis pada BAB I, 1 – 12, 1 – 13 yang berbunyi :

 

 

1 – 12

 

Tasya sanjanayan harsem

Kuru – vrddhah pitamahah

Simha – nadam vinadyoccaih

Sankham dadhmau prataparan

 

Artinya :

Untuk membangkitkan semangat pahlawan Kuru, yang sudah lanjut usia, sebagai patriot meniup trompet, meniup trompet rerangnya kuat – kuat sehingga menderu bagai raungan singa.

 

1 – 13

 

Tatas sankhas ca bheryas ca

Panavanaka – gomukhah

Sahasai vabhyahanyanta

Su sabdas tumulo bhavat

 

Artinya :

Kemudian terompet, gendering dan tambur serta seruling tanduk dibunyikan serentak dengan gemeruh dan gagap gepita

 

Inilah kegaduhan yang ditimbulkan pasukan Kurawa untuk membangkitkan semangat pertempuran, karena sebelumnya telah diawali oleh tiupan terompet oleh kakek Bhisma.

 

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