PERKEMBANGAN GAMELAN JOGED BUMGBUNG

 

 

2.1  ASAL MULA

 

Gamelan joged bumbung adalah sebuah barungan gamelan yang dipergunakan untuk mengiringi tari joget bumbung, sebuah tarian sosial di bali, dimana seorang penari wanita berhiaskan sejenis legong menjawat seorang penonton untuk di ajak menari.

Gamelan joged bumbung disebut juga gamelan grantangan, karena pokok-pokok instrumennya adalah grantang yaitu gender yang terbuat dari bambu, berbentuk bumbung dan memakai laras selendro lima nada. Larasnya serupa dengan gamelan gender wayang.

 

Intrumentasi :

1.     Grantang (empat sampai delapan buah ) yang terdiri dari empat grantang gede dan empat grantang kecil, berfungsi sebagai pembawa melodi pokok, dimainkan dengan dua tangan mempunyai tekhnik pukulan sejenis gender wayang dengan memakai polos dan sangsih.

2.     Kempor dibuat dari besi atau kerawang. Bentuknya seperti jegogan didalam gamelan gong, berbilah dua (nada yang sama ngumbang dan ngisep) berfungsi sebagai finalis didalam lagu-lagu joged bumbung, menggantikan gong gede didalam gamelan gong.

3.     Kempli, sebuah instrument pembawa matra. Bentuk kettle ( atau gong kecil )

4.     Klenang, sejenis kajar, berfungsi sebagai penombal kajar.

5.     Rincik adalah ceng-ceng kecil yang berfungsi untuk memperkaya ritme didalam gamelan joged bumbung.

6.     Kendang satu buah berfungsi untuk pemurba irama, pengatur tinggi rendah dan cepat lambatnya dari lagu-lagu joged bumbung.

7.     Suling empat buah, yang berfungsi untuk memaniskan dan memainkan lagu-lagu.

Mengenai reportoire dari gamelan joged bumbung diambil dari lagu-lagu rakyat sejenis lagu janger.

Di samping gamelan grantangan tersebut diatas masih ada beberapa jenis joged seperti : gandrung, leko dan joged pingitan. Ketiga jenis joged ini mempergunakan gamelan yang sama yaitu disebut gamelan rindik, dibuat daripada bambu, serupa gender dalam pelegongan dan berlaras pelog lima nada. Didalam satu instrument biasanya ada sepuluh sampai empat belas bilah.

Gandrung biasanya ditarikan oleh penari laki-laki sedangkan joged pingitan atau leko ditarikan oleh penari wanita. Namun komposisi tariannya sama dan meniru bentuk tari pelegongan. Hanya pada akhir tariannya memakai igel gegandrungan, serupa dengan igel ibing-ibingan dalam joged bumbung.

Penari gandrung yang terkenal di bali selatan adalah I wayan rindi.

 

2.2  FUNGSI  DALAM  UPACARA  AGAMA

 

Kesenian bali , seni karawitan (gamelan ), seni tari dan seni vocal (tembang) kesemuanya tidak bisa lepas dari upacara keagamaan (agama hindu-Bali). Dalam uraian buku seni sakral dalam hubungan dengan agama hindu dijelaskan sebagai berikut:

a.     Seni wali (sacred , religious yaitu seni yang dilakukan di pura-pura dan ditempat-tempat yang ada hubungannya dengan upacara keagamaan sebagai pelaksana upacara dan upakara agama( rejang, sang hyang, pendet, dan baris upacara)

b.     Seni Bebali ( ceremonial art ) yaitu seni yang berfungsi sebagai pengiring upacara dan upakara di pura ataupun ditempat lain. (pewayangan , topeng, gambuh, serta jenis seni tari lainnya).

c.      Seni balih-balihan (seculer art) yaitu semua seni diluar dari tersebut diatas baik yang bersifat seni serius maupun hiburan (tari pergaulan).

 

 

 

 

Mengenai kesenian joged bumbung kewsenian ini digolongkan seni balih-balihan yang fungsinya sebagai tari pergaulan (social dance). Hal ini kesenian joged bumbung lebih banyak orang” ngubah “ pada saat upacara keagamaan diantaranya,  hari paweton, pitre yadnya( ngaben) dan upacara “masesangi” (masaudan), yaitu apabila ada orang atau sesuatu organisasi tertentu yang mempunayi kepercayaan berdasarkan janji, yang melaksanakannya dapat dilakukan dipura-pura atau bditempat lain yang ada hubungannya dengan upacara tersebut. Namun demikian kesenian joged bumbung tidak hanya berfungsi pada upacara keagamaan seperti : paweton, ngaben, dan mesesangih, melainkan bersifat umum antara lain hibuyran dimasyarakat. Disamping dipertunjukan untuk hiburan para wisatawan asing. Hal ini gamelan joged bumbung senantiasa dimainkan di lobi-lobi hotel sebagai music ilustrasi, sayup-sayup dan tidak mengganggu para tamu( proyek panggilan/ pembinaan seni budaya klasik ( tradisional) dan baru.

 

2.3 organisasi

 

Organisasi yang penulis tulis disini adalah organisasi kesenian joged bumbung yang ada di desa tulikup . organisasi (sekaa) joged bumbung ini merupakan suatu bentuk sekaa pada mulanya berdasarkan karena keinginandan senang sama senang tanpaadanya ikatan atau peraturan . dengan adanya kepengurusan sekaa yang terbentuk pada tahun 1960 , maka susunan anggota sekaa dapat dipelihara dengan kesadaran yang kuat secara tertulis . melihat perkembangan kesenian joged bumbung ini khususnya seka penabuh hanya mengalami sekali pergantian personalia penabuh. Pergantian penabuh tersebut yakni pada tahun 1960 hingga sekarang yang merupakan bentuk seka masih dipelihara dibawah kepengurusan seorang kelian seka. Hanya saja sekarang dalam kegiatan pertunjukan mengalami hambatan disebabkan karena orang yang mengundang (ngupah) sudah semakin jarang.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAB III

INSTRUMEN DAN BENTUK PENYAJIAN

3.1 BENTUK ALAT

Gamelan joged bumbung merupakan seperangkat gamelan yang digunakan untuk megiringi tarian joged bumbung. Gamelan ini biasanya atau lebih umum disebut grantangan yang instrument utamanya adalah grantang. Instrument-instrument gamelan joged bumbung terdiri dari kendang gupekan, empat granting pemade, dua grantang kantil, dua granting jegogan, empat buah suling, sebuah kemplung, satu pangkoncengceng, satu buah kemong, satu buah klenang dan gong pulu serta empat pasang bumbung kepyak. Instrument “grantang” ini berbentuk bumbung yang langsung memakai bilah seperti gamelan tingklik. Istilah biasa diberikan untuk gamelan joged bumbung. Dalam buku evolusi tari bali, gamelan joded bumbung disebutkan “bumbung” berarti tabung (bamboo), sebuah istilah untuk memberikan nama kepada seperangkat gamelan joged. Dalam hal ini ialah gamelan joged bumbung (proyek panggilan/pembinaan seni budaya klasik (tradisional) dan baru).,

Instrument gamelan joged bumbung ini memiliki instrument granting jegogan dan bumbung kepyak, namum yang diuraikan dalam buku mengenal gamelan bali, instrumentasinya hanya meliputi : granting, kemodong, kempli, klenang, kajar, kendang, suling dan rincik. Ada pun instrument-instrument yang berbentuk bumbung dan bilah gamelan joged bumbung ini antara lain : instrument granting pamade, granting kantil dan granting jegogan yang masing-masing mempunyai ukuran tersendiri.

 

 

3.2 TUGAS INSTRUMENT

Seperti apa yang penulis ketahui, bahwa gamelan joged bumbung terdiri dari : sebuah kendang gupekan, empat granting pemade, dua grantang kantil, dua granting jegogan, empat buah suling, sebuah kemplung, satu pangkoncengceng, satu buah kemong, satu buah klenang dan gong pulu serta empat pasang bumbung kepyak yang masing-masing mempunyai tugas seperti :

1.     Instrument gerantang enam buah, yang terdiri dari empat gerantang pamade dan dua gerantang kantil. Gerantang pamade berfungsi sebagai pembawa melodi pokok yang mempunyai tekhnik pukulan sejenis gender wayang dengan memakai pukulan ngotek pada tangan kanan dan dan pukulan nyngsih pada tangan kiri. Sedangkan gerantang kantil membawakan melodi pokok, dimainkan dengan tangan yang mempunyai pukulan sejenis gegambangan (pukulan tetap berulang datang) dengan memakai pukulan polos saja.

2.     Sepasang gerantang jegogan yang fungsinya memperjelas tekanan-tekanan gending, dengan memakai tehnik pukulan polos saja.

3.     Sebuah kendang gupekan yang fungsinya sebagai pemurba irama, mengatur tinggi rendah dan cepat/lambat gending-gending joged bumbung.

4.     Empat buah suling berfungsi untuk memaniskan dan melembutkan bagian gending yang lirih, merupakan susunan menjadi sedih dan marah.

5.     Cengceng kecil berfungsi untuk memperkaya ritme, membuat ansel-angsel dan pariasi gending bersama gendang.

6.     Kemplung, sebuah instrument yang dibuat dari bamboo berfungsi sebagai pembawa matra dan menentukan tingkat tempo gending.

7.     Klenang sejenis kajar berfungsi sebagai penimbal kemplung (kajar).

8.     Kemong, sebuah instrument sejenis gong (kecil bentuknya) berfungsi mempertegas jatuhnya pukulan gong.

9.     Gong pulu, dibuat dari kerawang bentuknya seperti jegogan didalam gamelan gong, berbilah dua nada ngumbang dan ngisep, berfungsi sebagai finalis dalam gending joged bumbung.

10.                        Bumbung kepyak, di buat dari bambu berfunsi mengikuti angsel-angsel gending joged bumbung.

 

 

3.3 HAL LARAS

 

Di dalam buku pengantar Kerawitan Bali dijelaskan, bahwa laras adalah suatu tangga nada, susunan nada-nada didalam suatu gambyangan, oktaf ataupun angkep yang telah ditentukan jumlah serta tinggi rendahnya. Hal ini kerawitan (gamelan) Bali memiliki dua macam laras yakni: laras slendro dan laras pelog. Dalam laras pelog misalnya kita menemui dua bentuk laras antara lain: laras pelog lima nada yang terdapat pada gamelan gong kebyar, pelegongan, gong gede, dan sebagainya. Pada laras pelog tujuh nada dimiliki pada gamelan semarpegulingan, gambang, slonding dan lain-lainnya.

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