SEJARAH MUNCULNYA GONG KEBYAR DI BALI

Dalam tulisan-tulisan mengenai gamelan bali terdahulu secara umum telah dikemukakan oleh masing-masing penulisnya bahwa gamelan gong kebyar ini baru muncul pada permulaan abad XX, yang pertama kali diperkirakan muncul di daerah Bali Utara tepatnya sekitar tahun 1915 di desa Jagaraga.

Namun kenyataan yang diungkapkan oleh Beryl de Zoete dan Walter Spies dalam bukunya yang berjudul “ Dance and Drama in Bali “ mengatakan bahwa I Ketut Mario yang sudah lahir sekitar tahun 1900 sudah menari sisia dalam calonarang di tahun 1906. Dalam ungkapan selanjutnya sama sekali tidak ada menyinggung masalah gong kebyar atau tari kekebyaran. Dari ungkapan ini kiranya dapat diketahui bahwa Bapak I Ketut Mario yang dikenal sebagai salah seorang tokoh dalam gong kebyar sampai dengan 1906 ( perang puputan Badung ) masih menjadi penari sisia dalam pencalonarangan yang dapat diartikan bahwa sampai tahun 1906 itu Bapak Mario belum mengenal tari kebyar dan berarti bahwa gamelan gong kebyar belum ada pada tahun 1906 itu. Menurut Colin McPhee dalam bukunya “ Musik in Bali ” ada menyebutkan bahwa untuk pertama kalinya gamelan gaong kebyar diperdengarkan didepan umum adalah pada bulan Desember 1915 dimana ketika itu tokoh-tokoh gong Bali Utara mengadakan kompetisi yang pertama kali untuk gong kebyar di Jagaraga. Colin McPhee sendiri mengakui bahwa apa yang dikemukakan itu adalah hasil interviunya dengan A.A Gde Gusti Jelantik mantan Regen Buleleng ( Colin McPhee, 1966 : 328 ). Apabila diperhatikan baik-baik apa yang dikemukakan Colin McPhee maka akan nampak bahwa tahun 1915 itu adalh saat kompetisi yang pertama kali di Bali Utara yang menampilkan bentuk-bentuk kekebyaran dan sudah tentu sekaa-sekaa yang ikut ambil bagian dalam kompetisi ini sudah menciptakan bentuk-bentuk kekebyaran satu atau dua tahun sebelumnya bahkan mungkin beberapa tahun sebelumnya. Adalah mustahil apabila gong-gong yang ditampilkan dalam kompetisi di tahun 1915 dengan mengambil tempat Di Jagaraga itu menciptakan bentuk-bentuk kekebyaran beberapa jam atau beberapa hari sebelumnya. Lain dari pada ungkapan Colin McPhee ini dapat diketahui juga bahwa desa Jagaraga yang selama ini dianggap sebagai daerah asal mula munculnya gamelan gong kebyar di Bali Utara pada tahun 1915 ternyata hanya dijadikan tempat kompetisi gong kebyar pada tahun 1915 tersebut di atas. Berdasarkan apa yang dikemukakan oleh Beryl de Zoete, Walter Spies dan Colin McPhee diatas maka kiranya dapat ditarik suatu batas pemunculan gong kebyar di Bali yakni diantara tahun 1906 sampai tahun 1915 dengan kata lain sesudah tahun 1906 dan sebelum tahun 1915 dan tempat pemunculannya pertama kali bukan di desa Jagaraga .

Setelah ditelusuri lebih mendalam, didapatkanlah beberapa data yang dapat dijadikan suatu pegangan guna mengetahui asal mula dari pada gamelan gong kebyar ini. Informasi pertama datangnya dari Bapak I Nyoman Rembang seorang guru karawitan pada Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia ( SMKI ) Denpasar yang dulunya bernama KOKAR Bali, mengatakan bahwa berdasarkan hasil wawancaranya dengan Bapak I Gusti Bagus Sugriwa yang berasal dari desa Bungkulan Buleleng mengatakan bahwa lagu-lagu gong kebyar diciptakan pertama kali oleh I Gusti Nyoman Panji di desa Bungkulan pada tahun 1914 dan ketika itu dicoba untuk ditarikan oleh Ngakan Kuta yang berdomisili di desa Bungkulan. Informasi ini menunjukan bahwa pada tahun 1914 di desa Bungkulan telah diciptakan lagu-lagu kekebyaran. Hanya saja belum diketahui bagaimana bentuk lagu kebyar yang diciptakan ketika di Bungkulan itu dan bagaimana pula bentuk gamelan gong kebyar yang telah menampilkan motif-motif kekebyaran itu.

Selanjutnya I Gusti Bagus Arsaja, BA. ( guru SMKI ) Denpasar dalam kertas kerja bandingannya ats kertas kerja dari Bapak I Wayan Dibia yang berjudul Sejarah Perkembangan Gong Kebyar di Bali, mengatakan bahwa di desa Bungkulan telah diciptakan lagu-lagu ( tabuh ) kekebyaran sekitar tahun 1910. Apa yang dikemukakan oleh I Gusti Bagus Arsaja, BA. ini bila dihubungkan dengan adanya kompetisi gong kebyar di Jagaraga tahun 1915 ternyata dapat selisih waktu lima tahun. Batas waktu tersebut kiranya batas waktu yang masuk akal oleh karena sampainya suatu sekaa kepad arena kompetisi adalah cukup memakan waktu untuk pematangannya. Waktu empat sampai lima tahun untuk proses pemantapan kiranya dapat diterima.

Berdasarkan uraian diatas beserta beberapa argumentasi sebagaimana dikemukakan diatas keranya telah dapat ditarik suatu kesimpulan bahwa gamelan gong kebyar pertama kali muncul di Bali Utara ( Buleleng ) sekitar tahun 1914 di desa Bungkulan dan bentuk-bentuk kekebyaran sudah diciptakan antara tahun 1910 sampai 1914 yang dipelopori oleh I Gusti Nyoman Panji.

Di ringkas dari buku Mengenal Jenis-jenis Pukulan Dalam Barungan Gamelan Gong Kebyar

oleh ;  Pande Gede Muatika. SSKar, I Nyoman Sudiana. SSKar, I Ketut Partha. SSKar.

Menggugat Gong Kebyar PKB

Lomba Gong Kebyar sepertinya tak pernah absen dalam Pesta Kesenian Bali (PKB). Yang menarik, ajang lomba ini mendapat sambutan yang luar biasa dari semua Kabupaten di Bali. Mereka tak segan-segan mengeluarkan dana ratusan juta rupiah untuk membiayai sekaa yang mewakilinya. Tentunya dana ratusan juta ini bikin iri kesenian lainnya yang juga mendukung acara PKB. Sebab, dalam hal dana, jenis kesenian yang lain dianak-tirikan. Mengenai besar dana hingga ratusan bahkan beberapa ratus juta rupiah itu, tak hanya dipakai untuk membiayai latihan, membeli kostum baru yang wah bagi setiap penabuh, mendatangkan pelatih dari luar kabupatennya, menyewa atau mengadakan kostum fragmen sendratari, dan juga kostum untuk Sandyagita-nya. Namun, mana pwertanggung-jawaban para juri atas lomba ini?

BUKTI yang paling nyata dari kekurang-seriusan pelaksanaan lomba ini antara lain, usai lomba tak ada ulasan tertulis yang memadai dari juri pada media-media yang ada. Hal ini tentu memberi rasa kecewa karena yang kalah maupun yang menang tak mendapatkan kepastian secara tertulis tentang kekurangan maupun kelebihannya. Masalahnya menjadi luas karena persoalan kalah dan menang sebuah sekaa tak lagi hanya menjadi urusan sekaa, tapi harus dipertanggungjawabkan pada publik di kabupaten yang diwakilinya. Karenanya perlu pertanggungjawaban terbuka sehingga publik dapat memahami kelemahan dan kekuatan jagoannya. Selama ini, jika sekaa ingin mengetahui duduk permasalahan mengapa sekaa-nya kalah, hanya melawati konfirmasi telepon atau perbincangan singkat yang tak memadai. Padahal, demi pembinaan dan pengembangan sekaa ke depan, mereka sangat membutuhkan penjelasan yang rinci dari keseluruhan materi yang dilombakan pada bagian manakah yang lemah ataupun lebih unggul dari Gong Kebyar kabupaten lainnya.

Selain itu, pola penilaian lombanya juga cenderung merugikan sekaa yang ujungnya menjatuhkan nama kabupaten yang diwakilinya. Untuk itu perlu dipikirkan kembali pola penilaian yang selama ini diterapkan juri. Selama ini, penilaian menggunakan pola penggabungan dari unsur-unsur yang mendukung pertunjukan Gong Kebyar. Artinya, unsur-unsur yang mendukung pertunjukan Gong Kebyar dinilai secara terpisah namun kemudian hasilnya digabungkan. Pola penilian ini tentu mengaburkan keunggulan objektif setiap sekaa. Sebab, hasil penilaian gabungan itu tak pernah memberikan gambaran yang sebenarnya tentang kualitas sekaa di kabupaten. Yang sering jadi pertanyaan usai pengumuman lomba, ketika mereguk kekalahan, adalah apakah yang kalah itu gending-nya atau penyajiannya?

Jika juri memberikan penilaian yang lemah pada gending-nya, pasti belum tentu penyajiannya juga lemah. Karena penyajian menyangkut kepiawaian kelompok dalam memainkan teknik menabuh, kekompakan, keutuhan, ekspresi dan kesempurnaan membawakan gendingan tersebut. Sedangkan gending menyangkut kemampuan individu. Masalahnya mungkin timbul jika penilaian pemisahan ini diterapkan, kalau semua kelompok tampil memukau dan sempurna, jika demikian tentu poin tertinggi diberikan pada sekaa yang paling rumit menampilkan sajian karena komposisi gending-nya yang menuntut pengeksplorasian teknik-teknik menabuh yang canggih.

Pemisahan penilaian Gong Kebyar sebenarnya sangat penting diberikan. Alasannya, antara lain, akibat rasa minder yang dimiliki seniman atau birokrat seni di kabupaten, mereka jarang mempercayai seniman di daerahnya meskipun Sarjana Karawitan di kabupatennya berserakan. Lalu mereka pun berlomba mencari pelatih atau penggarap dari luar kabupaten yang dianggap lebih tahu trend gending Gong Kebyar terkini. Mereka akhirnya berebut mencari maestro-maestro muda yang diduga mumpuni. Hal ini tak hanya dalam menggarap tabuh demi tabuh yang dilombakan, juga dalam hal menggarap Sandyagita maupun fragmen sendratarinya.

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