1. Phenomenon

    Nowadays the use of interpreting is very important in globalization era because

    people need interpreter when they want communicate with other people who talking different language with them in that time. There are many types of interpreting such as: Conference interpreting, Legal/court interpreting, Escort interpreting, Public Service interpreting, Medical interpreting and Sign language interpreting. The uses of interpreting in two or more types of interpreting make phenomenon because it needs understanding between these types of interpreting have their own term. For example if we discuss between court interpreting with medical interpreting as an analysis model, of course both of types of interpreting have different lexical choice and term.

    1.2.  Understanding of interpreting

    Interpreting is to presuppose knowledge of what the speaker clearly means in order to explain the speaker meaning, Continue reading »












    1. 1.  Background

    1.1.1.  The understand of Semantics

    Semantics, the study of meaning, stand at the very centre of linguistic quest to understand the natural of language and human abilities. Why? Because expressing meanings is what languages are all about.  Every think in a language-words, grammatical construction, intonation pattern-conspires to the realize this goal in the fullest richest, subtlest way.  To understand how any particular language works we needs to how its individual design work to fulfill its function as an intricate device for communicating meanings. Equally, semantics is crucial to the Chomskyan goal of describing and accounting for linguistic competence, that is, the knowledge that people must have in order to speak understand a language. Semantic competence is a crucial part of overall linguistic competence.

    Another concern of semantics is to shed light on the relationship between language and culture, or more accurately, between languages and cultures. Much of the vocabulary of any language, and ever, part of the grammar, will reflect the culture of the speakers. Indeed, the culture-specific concept and ways of understanding embedded in a language are an important part of what constitutes a culture. Language is one of the main instruments by which children are socialized into the values, belief systems, and practices of their culture.

    1.1.2.  The understanding of translation

    The study of translation has been dominated, and to a degree still is, by the debate about its status as an art or a science, so we shall begin with this issue.

    The linguist inevitably approaches translation from a ‘scientific’ point of view, seeking to create some kind of objective description of the phenomenon and this will be the fundamental orientation of this book. It could, however be argued that translation is an ‘art’ or a ‘craft’ and therefore not amenable to objective, ‘scientific’ description and explanation and so, a fortiori, the search for a theory of translation is doomed from the start.

    It is easy to see how such a view could have held sway in the last century, when scholars-for the most part, dilettante translators engaging in translation as a past time-were preoccupied with the translation of literary texts and, in particular, Classical authors; Latin and Greek. Not untypical is the description, by a contemporary, of the Scottish peer, Lord Woodhouselee (1747-1814) as:

    a delightful host, with whom it was a memorable experience to spend an evening

    discussion the Don Quixote of Motteux and of Smollett, or how to capture the

    aroma of Virgil in a n English medium, in the era before the Scottish prose Homer

    had changed the literary perspective north of the Tweed.

    It also understandable that the attitude should have continued into the present century, during which both translation and translation theory have been dominated at less until very recently, by Bible translation (especially Nida)

    What is less comprehensible is that the view should still persist in the closing decade of the twentieth century, when the vast proportion of translations are not literary texts but technical, medical, legal, administrative and the vast majority of translations are professionals engaged in making a living rather than whiling away the time in an agreeable manner by translating the odd ode or two on winter evenings.

    Nevertheless, the supposed dichotomy between ‘art’ and science’ is still current enough to form the title of a book on translation theory published in 1998: The science of linguistics in the art of translation, where (even though care is taken to distinguish ‘pure’ linguistic from applied linguistic) the main emphasis is still on literary translation since, we are told: ’The quintessence of translation as art is, if anything, even more patent in literary texts.

    ‘Translation’ has been variously defined and, not infrequently, in dictionaries of linguistics, omitted entirely and the following definitions have been selected (and edited) partly because they are, in some sense typical and partly because they raise issue which we will be pursuing in detail later.

    1. Traiduire c,est énoncer dans une autre langage (ou langue cible) ce qui a été énoncé dans une autre langue source, en conservant les equivalence sémantiques et stylistiques. Translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylish equivalences. [my translation]

    There are , in spite of the differences, common features shared by the two

    definitions we have given so far, the notion of movement of some sort between language, content of some kind and the obligation to find ‘equivalents’ which ‘preserve’ features of the original. It is this notion of ‘equivalence’ which we are about to take up.

    1.2. Scope of problem

    • The translation from semantics meaning of colours symbols in “mecaru”

    (Tradition Balinese Offering Ceremony)

    Continue reading »



    Om Swastiastu

    With the blessing of Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa/Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, the Almighty God,

    I am very happy and great for the Art Delegation of Indonesia Institute of the Arts in Denpasar which performance the performing likes Ramayana kecak, Legong Kraton dance, Selat Segara dance and Topeng keras/Tua dance from 16th up to 23rd of August 2009.

    Besides art performance programs, scientific seminars and workshops are held to propose for learning and teaching presentation  process, likes classic traditional painting of Bali workshop on two faculties in Indonesia Institute of Arts in Denpasar, Fine Arts and Design faculty and Performance faculty.

    I hope two faculties (Fine Arts and Design faculty and Performance faculty) are able to study preeminent programs of Songkla Rajabath University and Sentani University Thailand, with those activities, whether in future which is formed in research cooperation, sandwich program or student transferring program

    With my speech greeting, I would like to say congratulation for the performances, seminars, and workshops to all delegation of Indonesia Institute of arts and also a big appreciation  for High Directorate of Education, National Department of Education, Indonesia Consulate General in Thailand,        Songkla Rajabath University, Sentani University and for all the participants who have assisted to held of this activity.

    Om Santih, Santih, Santih, Om

    Denpasar, 08th of  August 2009


  • Translated by agus brata

    THE SUMMARY:    Aesthetics Fine Art Research of Pita Maha Style


    I Dewa Made Pastika

    Indonesian Institute of the Arts (ISI) Denpasar


    Aesthetics Fine Art Research of Pita Maha Style

    Fine art of Pita Maha style is one of fine art style, which arises and develops in Ubud village since established one of painters group named Pita Maha then spread to other place in Bali. It was a collaboration of fine art that basically in classic traditional and had influenced by western fine art, which have been motif and unique style and it is still continuing with their generation until now famously called Ubud fine art style.

    Balinese fine arts is developing because of positive and negative influence from domestic and international so it would many renewal in idea, concept and its making technique. The renewal of idea is from Balinese puppet story been changing to activities such as ceremony in temple, dance performance, activities in rice field etc and technique renewal is in anatomy proportion, perspective, glittery shadow and  colour.  Fine art of Pita Maha style right now is still collecting by Puri Lukisan Ratna Warta Museum in Ubud and up to present has collecting of 227 paintings and 105 sculptures. Continue reading »


    The Types and Different Crying Meaning Between West Culture and East Culture (In This Case West Culture is Representatived by England and East Culture is Respentatived by Japan).


    Putu Agus Bratayadnya

    Chapter I


    1.1 Background

    The cognitive scenario (Which is readily translatable into any other language) is presented in the meaning of this English word as typical rather than necessary, for one can say in English for example, “I feel sad-I Don’t why” (cf. Johnson-Laired and Oatley 1989). What this shows is that by describing my feeling as “sadness” I would be saying, in effect, That I feel like a person who actually thinks some such thoughts. One of the cognitive scenarios “single out” by the English lexicon and encoded in the word sad.

    Some aspects Japanese Culture ethos Embedded in nonverbal communicative behaviour should be always kept in mind that translation is not simply a matter of language, but also of cross cultural transfer. Today, many works in one language are translated into other languages. A translator must be versed in the cultural traits such as attitudes, values, beliefs, and social rules that are shared by a group of people in the cultures of both source and target languages. This because, without information on these cultural traits, the reader will find it extremely difficult to obtain a complete picture that a given novel in a foreign language intends to present.

    This also applies to the translation of nonverbal behaviour, because nonverbal communication pattern are to a large extent, culturally determined. Although the actions of crying or smiling, for example, are universally performed, in what situation, in what manner, for what proposes, and with what meanings people cry or smile determined by their culture.

    This paper will consider the nonverbal behaviour typical of Japanese people and culture. The focus of discussion will be those patterns which often appear incomprehensible or inscrutable from the eyes of non-Japanese, paying special attention to the gestures of eye-movement, crying and smiling. The study of these patterns will clarify the important characteristics of  Japanese people’s psychology and socio-cultural norms/needs/values in society.

    The primary purpose of this paper is to examine if these psychological and socio-cultural aspects associated with Japanese nonverbal behaviour can be translated into some concise and explicable form which would be accurately comprehended by non-Japanese people. This is because simply using English terms for explaining Japanese concepts or norms will lead English readers to interpret Japanese behaviour through the prism of their own culture. Wierzbicka clearly articulates this problem of explaining non-cultural specific concepts in term of English words (e.g. Wierzbicka 1991 a:1991b). Although they are useful as a first approximation, they are English words, and they do not accurately present the Japanese point of view.

    If we want to define concepts or norms of Japanese culture in a way which is truly free of ethnocentrism and is explanatory, we must do so by means of explicit semantic formulas, such as those offered by the “semantic primitives” approach proposed by Wierzbicka (See e.g. 1991a; 1992; 1995; In press) In this approach, a “natural semantic metalanguage(NSM)” is used as a tool. These NSM words are “maximally clear, maximally simple and maximally universal” in the sense of having absolute equivalents in all the languages in the world, and thus are intuitively understandable to people any culture. This metalanguage enables us to explicate cultural concepts attached to Japanese nonverbal behaviour in simple words and grammar which are understandable to anyone in a non-ethno-biased way. Continue reading »

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