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Digital Music Sampling: Creativity Or Criminality?

Filed under: DIGITAL AUDIO RECORDING,KNOWLEDGEMENT — Tag:, — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 10.22

Digital Music Sampling: Creativity Or Criminality?

January 28, 2011 1:00 PM
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The advent of the sampler in the ’80s brought a long tradition of musical borrowing into the digital age. Today, “sampling,” or re-purposing a snippet of another artist’s music, is mainstream. Is sampling theft, or is copyright law making creativity a crime?

Dean Garfield, president and CEO, Information Technology Industry Council, Washington, D.C.

Kembrew McLeod, associate professor, department of communication, University of Iowa, co-producer, “Copyright Criminals” (ITVS, 2009), co-author, “Creative License: The Law and Culture of Digital Sampling” (Duke University Press, 2011), Iowa City, Iowa

Hank Shocklee, president, Shocklee Entertainment, co-founder and producer, Public Enemy

Copyright © 2011 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.

IRA FLATOW, host:

Way back when, there used to be a distinct line between producers of culture and consumers. Somebody at a network or a production company made the TV shows, the movies and the music, and then the average consumer, well, you bought a ticket, or you bought the album.

But digital technologies, from Pro Tools to YouTube, have made everyone into a producer. We live in a world of remixes and mash-ups and samples, taking other people’s work, remaking it into something new.

But the problem is – but the problem is, remixing someone else’s work without their permission might be a good way to get sued, a copyright infringement perhaps.

So when it comes to sampling, the law can be confusing. How much of a sound can you copyright? A musical phrase? A single note? And who owns those copyrights? And what about fair use?

Well, that’s what we’ll be talking about the rest of the hour, but if you’re not quite sure what sampling is, and I wasn’t quite sure when I got into this piece myself, Flora Lichtman, our digital media editor, is here. She’s going to straighten us out to help explain via our Video Pick of the Week what sampling is. Welcome.

FLORA LICHTMAN: Hi, Ira, thanks.

FLATOW: Tell us about the sampling stuff. What is it?

LICHTMAN: So I didn’t know what sampling was either, Ira. I’d say, you know, I hear sample and I think cheese cube. But Katherine Wells, science arts producer to the rescue this week. She interviewed a musician, DJ and clothing designer, Aaron LaCrate, who was generous and not – nonjudgmental enough…

(Soundbite of laughter)

LICHTMAN: …to introduce us to the concept of sampling, which is basically taking a snippet of a song and repurposing it. And for the purpose of this segment, we thought we’d do a little demonstration. So what we first have is this song, which is by James Brown, “Funky Drummer.” It’s one of the most sampled songs in history.

(Soundbite of song, “Funky Drummer”)

LICHTMAN: That drum beat…

FLATOW: Ah.

LICHTMAN: …that you hear is sampled all over the place. And so, a musician would take that drum beat and pick it out of the thing. And so, let’s hear then the sample from that song.

(Soundbite of song, “Funky Drummer”)

LICHTMAN: That’s it.

FLATOW: Just took it out.

LICHTMAN: Just – exactly.

FLATOW: And now he’s going to take that and make something new with it.

LICHTMAN: So the next step is taking the drum beat and then looping it. So here’s a loop.

(Soundbite of song, “Funky Drummer”)

FLATOW: Over and over, it keeps playing.

LICHTMAN: Oh, repeat, repeat, repeat.

FLATOW: Yeah.

LICHTMAN: And then that becomes the basis of a new piece of – a new song. And so, we have a musician, Sublime, which has sampled the “Funky Drummer” beat and then created their own new piece.

(Soundbite of song, “Scarlet Begonias”)

FLATOW: And you could certainly hear the old drum beat.

LICHTMAN: Should sound familiar. And they’re actually playing “Scarlet Begonias,” which is a Grateful Dead cover. This just further complicates the copyright there.

FLATOW: So they sampled a whole bunch different and mix them all together to create a new object, a new thing.

LICHTMAN: That’s right. And one thing that we should note is that our Video Pick of the Week, which goes through this even – certainly, Aaron LaCrate is a better expert that I am on this.

FLATOW: Mm-hmm. Mm-hmm.

LICHTMAN: He doesn’t actually sample in his music because clearing these samples is a really complicated and expensive process.

FLATOW: Mm-hmm. And so, if you want to see how – what it takes to actually create a sample and using new technology, in the old times they show on the Video Pick of the Week using turntables. You don’t need to use turntable anymore, right?

LICHTMAN: Yeah. And now, it’s sort of can be completely digitized. And one other thing that we should give due credit to, the drummer, Clyde Stubblefield, is known as one of the most sampled artists. That’s how he’s referred to. He’s just a…

(Soundbite of laughter)

LICHTMAN: …the drum beats coming out of him are perfect for sampling apparently.

FLATOW: And so, he’s like the granddaddy of all sampled drum beats.

LICHTMAN: Maybe.

(Soundbite of laughter)

FLATOW: All right. So thank you, Flora.

LICHTMAN: Thank, Ira.

FLATOW: That’s our Video Pick of the Week, coming a little early because now we’re going to talk about some of the issues that have to do with sampling.

I’m Ira Flatow. This is SCIENCE FRIDAY from NPR.

And as promised, here to talk more about the issues of sampling and copyright are my guests. Hank Shocklee is a co-founder and producer of the legendary group Public Enemy, and the president of Shocklee Entertainment. Welcome to SCIENCE FRIDAY.

Mr. HANK SHOCKLEE (President, Shocklee Entertainment): How are you, Ira?

FLATOW: Nice to have you here. Thanks for coming in.

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Thank you.

FLATOW: Kembrew McLeod is associate professor at the Department of Communication at the University of Iowa. He’s also the co-producer of the documentary “Copyright Criminals,” and the co-author of the upcoming book, “Creative License: The Law and Culture of Digital Sampling.” Welcome to SCIENCE FRIDAY.

Professor KEMBREW McLEOD (Professor, Department of Communication, University of Iowa): Thanks for having me on.

FLATOW: You’re welcome. Dean Garfield is the president and CEO, Information Technology Industry Council. He formerly worked as the executive vice president and chief strategic officer for the MPAA, and vice president of legal affairs at the RIAA, where he focused on intellectual property and copyright issues. Thank you for joining us.

Mr. DEAN GARFIELD (President and CEO, Information Technology Industry Council): Thank you. Glad to be here.

FLATOW: Hank, let’s start with you. As producer for Public Enemy, you really treated sampling as collage, putting pieces together. How did you come up with this technique?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Actually, it just came from my DJ and radio, you know, experience. And it was it was actually another DJ that came and he mixed – he was mixing like four records together and it sounded like -to me – it sounds like a mess to everybody else.

(Soundbite of laughter)

Mr. SHOCKLEE: But to me, I heard something that was unique in it. And because all the different, you know, textures just playing off of each other gave another rhythm. It created another sense of harmony. It created another sense of timing and different things. So it kind of like – that aspect of it kind of like propelled me into wanting to do more of those things on a commercial level, as you put it.

FLATOW: Right, right. And it became a more complex with the technique as you moved along.

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Correct.

FLATOW: Yeah. Kembrew, how important is sampling in pop culture today?

Prof. McLEOD: Well, I think it’s basically the central part of popular culture if you think about social networking and the way that people interact with each other across great distances. And they get to collaborate with each other, you think about open-source software, the way that people collaboratively create stuff, they’re essentially taking samples of computer code and remixing them.

And the same is true with music. I mean, I know a 12-year-old who make mash-up videos on YouTube and upload them. It’s just – it’s almost part of the DNA of – not just youth culture but just popular culture more generally.

FLATOW: We’re talking about sampling this hour on SCIENCE FRIDAY from NPR. I’m Ira Flatow, here with a bunch of guests talking about it.

And Dean, how does the recording industry see sampling as a big problem. Do they – do you – you’re basically stealing somebody else’s intellectual property, their musical property.

Mr. GARFIELD: Yeah. I would say probably, you know, 10 years ago, that was the general perspective. But they, like everyone else, have matured a lot. I don’t work in the recording industry anymore. I now work for the tech sector. But I think there’s been a certain maturation over the years, and the recognition that consumer choice is at the center of anything and everything that they do.

And so, as consumers want content, music that includes the kind of sampling that you demonstrated before, that they should figure out a way to enable that. And I think more and more, they’re working at doing just that.

FLATOW: Mm-hmm. 1-800-989-8225 is our number if you want to talk about sampling and the technology there. Also, you can tweet us @scifri, @S-C-I-F-R-I.

Hank, do you think there should be ways to compensate people for this? Or has this been set up?

Prof. MCLEOD: Well, I mean…

FLATOW: Or do you think this is just an art form?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: I think it’s just an art form, and I think that – you know, you have to understand, to me, the original copyrights were there to protect the entire embodiment of the recording itself, you know, not necessarily the little pieces that was coming from it.

So, thus, you know, as we start to move more towards into the future and technology starts to increase, well, you know, now these things have to now metamorphosize, have to change. And the copyright laws have to now become updated to deal with the new landscape that we have. You know, you have kids that are listening to YouTube and you have kids that’s -that are watching DJs perform. And records are now more than – it’s more of an instrument for us…

FLATOW: Right.

Mr. SHOCKLEE: …as opposed to it being just, you know, a record just to be listening to.

FLATOW: All right. We’re going to talk a lot more about sampling. Our number, 1-800-989-8255. And what do you think? Do you think it’s an art form? Do you think that there’s a middle ground someplace between using someone else’s intellectual property or their music and allowing artists to become new – to experiment with new kinds of sounds? Tell us. 1-800-989-8255. You can tweet us @scifri, @S-C-I-F-R-I. Stay with us. We’ll be right back after this break.

I’m Ira Flatow. This is SCIENCE FRIDAY from NPR.

(Soundbite of music)

FLATOW: You’re listening to SCIENCE FRIDAY. I’m Ira Flatow. We’re talking this hour about digital sampling and copyright law with Hank Shocklee, co-founder and producer of Public Enemy and the president of Shocklee Entertainment. Kembrew McLeod, associate professor in the Department of Communication, University of Iowa, also the co-producer of the documentary “Copyright Criminals.” Dean Garfield is the president and CEO of the Information Technology Industry Council. Our number, 1-800-989-8255.

Kembrew, in “Copyright Criminals,” you asked a question, can you own a sound?

Prof. McLEOD: Yes.

FLATOW: Did you come up with an answer?

(Soundbite of laughter)

Prof. McLEOD: Courts have come up with – some courts have come up with the answer in the affirmative. There’s a well-known case that’s been really influential called the – referred to as the Bridgeport case, which basically, the court said, more or less – and I think this is a direct quote – get a license or do not sample. And even if you – it affirms that even one second of a sound recording – and we’re talking about the sound recording just then – lifting the sample from another record, that’s an infringement.

So, yeah, some courts have ruled that that is, in fact, the case. There is, of course, in the United States, a kind of loophole called fair use. And that allows for quoting from copyrighted works for purposes of criticism, commentary and recontextualization. And that is not considered an infringement.

FLATOW: Mm-hmm. Hank, do you think that these laws all have to be changed to allow for kids to be creative with the sampling?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Oh, yes. I think that everything should be fair use, except for taking the entire record and mass producing it and selling it yourself. Anything – if you take a chorus, if you take the entire intro from a record, eight bars or whatever it takes, I think that – all that should be fair use.

FLATOW: So, describe what fair use is for people who don’t know what that…

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Well, fair use just means that I can use anything that I want to use out there without having to pay for – to get a license.

FLATOW: Mm-hmm. And…

Mr. GARFIELD: It really is an attempt to figure out what’s fair as – and so, you know, I think Hank’s approach doesn’t give enough credit to the work that – the role that ideas and copyright play in really being the seed corn for innovation that improves people’s lives in this country. The concept that someone could – you could spend your entire career developing something and because someone decides to take 75 percent of it instead of 100 percent means that you don’t have a way of being compensated, to me, simply sounds unfair.

FLATOW: Could you not create a system, let’s say, on iTunes where you just have little bits of these snippets for sale, 99 cents, 2.99, whatever it is? And then there’s – every time someone takes a little bit, makes a loop, they would get a little bit of dough out of that? What would be wrong with that?

Prof. McLEOD: Well, actually, that is the case. So there are whole sample libraries that you can purchase. But the downside of that is the sample libraries typically are produced by, you know, session musicians creating, like, short snippets and stuff. And the stuff that people really want to sample is, for instance, Clyde Stubblefield’s drum beat from “Funky Drummer.”

FLATOW: Well, I understand that. I say – I know if I can get – if I get a Garage Band from Apple, I can…

Prof. McLEOD: Yeah.

FLATOW: All these free, use them as much as you want little riffs on there, little samples. But why can’t I get something, you know, from some of these popular tunes that are going to be sampled any way the kids want to do it? Why can’t we find a way to put those up on iTunes or add little bits of it, somehow, in a system there?

Prof. McLEOD: The short answer…

Mr. GARFIELD: In part, it is artistic integrity. It’s the reason you now have The Beatles on iTunes where previously you didn’t. You know, they made the determination, at some point, that it was appropriate. And before then, they thought it wasn’t. And so, as the person who spent the time developing the work, you should, I believe, have some control over how that work is used.

Mr. SHOCKLEE: You’re right…

Prof. McLEOD: But there’s a long tradition in copyright law. Just take the example of cover songs, where the songwriter, since 1909, has no right to prevent someone else from covering. Do, like – for instance, The Beatles couldn’t stop William Shatner from doing that god-awful cover of “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.” So there’s already precedence in copyright law where, you know, the quote and quote, “artistic integrity,” doesn’t trump downstream creativity. You know what I mean?

So anyway, I think we need to find a middle ground. I think we need to revisit, you know, what we did a hundred years ago, what Congress did a hundred years ago when they rethought copyright law and they enabled -they basically enabled the 20th century music industry to exist because the music industry was based largely on cover songs.

And back then, before email, faxes and stuff like that that make it even easier to negotiate contracts, back then, you didn’t have any of that stuff. And so – basically, what I’m getting at is the entire tradition of cover songs would have been wiped out if, a hundred years ago, Congress didn’t have the foresight to create a little bit more artistic elbow room.

FLATOW: Hank, you wanted to jump in?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Yeah. And keep in mind that the – you know, Clive Stubblefield, you know, is not a copyright owner. James Brown is not a copyright owner. George Clinton is not a copyright owner. The copyright owners are corporations, and most of the corporations that are have affiliates with the record companies.

So thus – so when we talk about artists, you know, that term is being used, but that’s not really the case here. We’re really talking about corporations.

FLATOW: Mm-hmm. Let’s go to Max(ph) in Denver. Hi, Max.

MAX (Caller): Hey. How are you, Ira?

FLATOW: Hi, there.

MAX: I just want to say I appreciate your show. SCIENCE FRIDAY is one of my favorite shows.

FLATOW: Thank you. Go ahead.

MAX: But I just want to say that I think a lot of creativity gets stifled. I mean, you can look at, basically, the golden age of sampling during the ’90s for hip hop, and you just saw so much unique sounds coming out. And I – that’s when I started deejaying. I’ve been doing it for 15 years. You can check me out at soundcloud.com/dj-eclipse.

But it’s basically, you know, stifling a lot of the creativity because a lot of the people who get these samples and play them – a lot of people rediscover music from past genres by listening to these samples.

And, you know, I think those corporations that are holding those copyrights hostage are missing out on a huge marketing opportunity, basically, because they’re not going to – these people are now getting into these electric genres where people aren’t able to listen to snippets and soundbites of old music where they’re going to say, hey, where did that come from?

Where did RZA get that sample from? Where did it RJD2(ph) get that sample from? And then rediscover past genres of music and buy those albums, because I know I did, through just sampling and through just being interested in the music and trying to research and find out how these sounds are put together. And I think that’s one of the most lost aspects from the golden age of sampling that we have today, what you can call, I don’t know, the Timberlanization(ph) of hip hop where…

(Soundbite of laughter)

MAX: …you just have these big, huge electric genres that are coming out, and people end up regurgitating riffs that were there from the ’80s or whatever. Anyway, I mean (unintelligible).

FLATOW: So you’re saying that we could resurrect people’s careers who -Hank, you agree with that? You were giving me a thumbs-up.

Mr. SHOCKLEE: That has happened tons of times. I mean, look at Roger Chapman, for example. Roger Chapman’s career wasn’t going anywhere. And then, all of a sudden, Dre decides to sample him on “California Love.” And by him using the sample, caused him to say, okay, I couldn’t get the sound right. So let me go get Roger Chapman himself and come in here and actually perform that live.

FLATOW: Can you order up on the Internet, can you order up a sample of anybody you want? Can you find any – I’d like to get a sample. Are there people who make you a sample, something?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: No. No. You have to find the actual song.

FLATOW: You have – so there’s not – there aren’t…

Mr. GARFIELD: You can find it. It’s matter of whether you can legitimately obtain it. And I actually agree with Hank and, I think, Kembrew. I don’t think anyone is well-served by having these songs locked up in some locker somewhere that – so that people can’t discover them.

I think at bottom this comes down to how do you facilitate that consumer choice in a way that’s fair, you know, that benefits the artist and benefits consumers.

FLATOW: 1-800-989-8255. Let’s see if we can get a couple of more calls in here from our listeners. Let’s go to Kyle(ph) in Grand Haven, Michigan. Hi, Kyle.

KYLE (Caller): Hi, Ira. Thanks for having me on.

FLATOW: Hi, there.

KYLE: I’m gonna try to explain as best as I can in short words. When speaking from a commercial standpoint here, as we’re talking about music, we’re trying to copyright in a sense – put a label on human emotion, taking away from its artistic value, I feel, at least.

FLATOW: Okay. Any comment on that? And what about if you treated the sample as actually a pictorial, as a waveform?

KYLE: Yeah. Exactly.

FLATOW: Could you – that’s what you’re getting to. Could you copyright the waveform?

KYLE: It’s like trying to copyright an emotion like fear.

FLATOW: Yeah. Right.

Mr. GARFIELD: Or better yet, you know, Gibson and – could copyright the sound of their guitars. You know, Tama or – can copyright the sounds of their drums.

FLATOW: Right.

Mr. GARFIELD: I mean, so this thing could go on…

FLATOW: (unintelligible) could’ve made a killing on…

(Soundbite of laughter)

Prof. McLEOD: Well, think about it. I mean, the – I mean, when we another thing that hasn’t come up yet is the discussion of the public domain. And the public domain is that which isn’t copyrighted, usually because it’s either never was copyrighted or Congress sets limits on the amount of time that something can be copyrighted. Well, Congress keeps extending the length of copyright.

Well, anyway – so, basically, the only stuff that we can sample is anything pre-1923, if you’re safe. And whos going to want to sample that? I mean, someone who is really creative could do something interesting with that. But the stuff that really resonates with people is more contemporary, but, anyway…

FLATOW: Im seeing a Rudy Valli moment here, I think…

(Soundbite of laughter)

Prof. McLEOD: Yeah. Well, no. That’s definitely not pre-’23 though.

(Soundbite of laughter)

Prof. McLEOD: But going back to, like, the idea of copyrighting a sound or whatever – like, think about the public domain. Like whenever – and -oh, no. Sorry. Going back to Ford, you know, he could have made a killing, you said. Well, yeah. Every time we step in our cars, we go on a ride in the public domain, because everything in our cars, you know, is built on previous ingenuity. And at one point in time, it was released so that anyone can use it. So that’s another dimension that I wanted to introduce.

FLATOW: Sure.

Mr. SHOCKLEE: And keep in mind, if I bought that Ford car, I could take the carburetor out and resell it. And that’s quite okay, you know? But in – but I bought a record. I own the record and I can’t take a piece of it and sample it and use it for my own record, for whatever purpose, whether it’s commercial or non-commercial.

FLATOW: Mm-hmm.

Mr. SHOCKEE: And, you know, that’s why I think – I think…

Mr. GARFIELD: I think the metaphor though is if you bought a CD, you could sell that CD, right? But you couldnt then sell the patent behind the carburetor of the car, which is the parallel concept here.

FLATOW: Well, but – if you kept…

Mr. SHOCKLEE: How does that happen? Explain that, please.

Mr. GARFIELD: Well, the idea is you can sell the objective manifestation, like the CD, but the actual creative work, someone invested time and energy in that and so you can’t just take that and sell that.

FLATOW: Well, that – the word sell is an interesting point here because what if youre just a kid who wants to just sample as a hobby and you have no intention…

Prof. McLEOD: Yeah.

FLATOW: …of making any money from this. You just, you know, you’re going to listen to it by yourself, maybe show it to your friends. You’re not putting it out on iTunes or something like that to sell it. (Unintelligible).

Prof. McLEOD: (Unintelligible) that is the difference. If we’re talking about private use, that’s clearly a fair use. But then when that kid wants to put it up on YouTube or SoundCloud or whatever, then they’re making multiple copies. And they’re potentially liable for hundreds of thousands of dollars in damages.

FLATOW: We’re talking about…

Prof. McLEOD: Simple as that.

FLATOW: …talking about sampling this hour in SCIENCE FRIDAY from NPR.

And I know Hank, you’ve been – you’ve had experience with being sued over sampling, right?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Well, everybody who’s made rap records has.

(Soundbite of laughter)

FLATOW: And you’re still sitting here and still advocating for more of it?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Of course. I mean, and you know, I’ve been sampled as well, you know? And then it becomes a situation when you sample a record and you put a new record out, and then someone samples that record, you know? Now, who do we go to, you know? Are we going to the person that sampled the record or do we have to go to the owner of that particular record?

FLATOW: So how do you feel about being sampled?

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Well, I think it’s great. Because I think anything that moves the – that moves the energy forward, to me, is great, you know. It’s like, if the kids are doing it and that makes me relevant again because their use of it is going to be different in the way I originally had recorded this particular record.

FLATOW: Let’s go to Hunter(ph) in Jacksonville, Florida. Hi, Hunter.

HUNTER (Caller): Hi. Good afternoon, guys.

FLATOW: Hi there.

HUNTER: I just had two points of sampling. One was – you know, when, like, Nelly and Ludacris come out with “Shake your Tailfeather,” and it’s direct sampling from the ’70s song, I think that they lack originality. They’re lacking creativity and that harms it because they’re just reproducing something that was popular without any real input.

The other comment is that what the gentleman was just saying, it’s an evolution. And, you know, in rap, especially, I think hip hop is a more modern form of blues. And, you know, blues was based on an evolution of field calling. And there’s been an evolution throughout time, and people are going to sample from the period just before that and that’s how things evolve. And I think that’s a natural progression, to want to pull those sounds with you into the future as you evolve. So…

Prof. McLEOD: Yeah, I want to…

HUNTER: …I’ll take my answer of the air. Thank you.

FLATOW: Thank you, Hunter.

Prof. McLEOD: Yeah. Can I quickly address…

HUNTER: Sure.

Prof. McLEOD: …what he just said? So yeah, he was referring to just taking an old chorus and looping it and that’s not very original. And, you know, I would agree with that. That’s not a very interesting use of sampling in my opinion. What was really interesting is what groups like De La Soul and Public Enemy did 20 years ago, back when they were flying under the radar and major labels weren’t paying attention to this new art form of sampling. And so, Public Enemy would build songs out of dozens of little snippets.

And returning to what I said earlier where just even today, just a brief one second sound bite is considered an infringement, it made the more interesting collage-heavy, you know mind-blowing stuff illegal, or if not illegal it made it administratively impossible to clear all these dozens if not hundreds of different samples that appeared on those records. And it basically wiped out – yeah, it put a stop to one branch of hip hop’s evolution. And I think that’s that.

FLATOW: Well, let me – in a minute that I have left here, is there a high tech solution to this? If we can – if sampling is a high-tech way of doing things, is there some way to create a system that’s equitable to everybody?

Prof. McLEOD: You know, I think…

Mr. GARFIELD: I think there is. I mean, the companies I represent today are the companies who develop this technology that enable this stuff, right, as opposed to what I did 10 years ago. And for me, I think part of it is persuading the record companies to enable this kind of consumer choice by creating the kinds of database so that its easy to gain access to the kinds of sample that you want, you know, rather than having them locked up somewhere and not being able to evolve and grow in giving consumers what they want over time.

FLATOW: All right. I think that you have the last word. I want to thank all of you, gentlemen, for joining us. Hank Shocklee, co-founder and producer of the group Public Enemy and president of Shocklee Entertainment. Thank you Hank, for being here today.

Mr. SHOCKLEE: Thank you, Ira. I appreciate it.

FLATOW: Kembrew McLeod, associate professor in the Department of Communication, University of Iowa, also co-producer of the documentary “Copyright Criminals” available to be seen everywhere? Kembrew?

Prof. McLEOD: Yep. Even on Hulu.

FLATOW: There you go.

(Soundbite of laughter)

FLATOW: And its not being sampled. Dean Garfield, president and CEO of the Information Technology Industry Council. Thank you also for taking time to be with us today.

Mr. GARFIELD: Thank you, Ira.

FLATOW: Have a good weekend, everybody.

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Taken From http://www.npr.org/2011/01/28/133306353/Digital-Music-Sampling-Creativity-Or-Criminality

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What is Digital Audio?

Filed under: DIGITAL AUDIO RECORDING,KNOWLEDGEMENT — Tag:, — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 10.16

What is Digital Audio?

It would be difficult for anyone who watches TV or reads the news to avoid the constant message that the world is going digital, and that digital is better. Digital audio is better than other audio, digital video is better than other video, etc. If you are like a lot of us, you are wondering just what digital audio is, and whether it really is better. The following information should give you a clearer idea of what digital audio is and what it is good for.

The dictionary defines “audio” as “audible sound reproduced mechanically”. Like so many dictionary definitions, this leads to a new question: what, exactly, is sound? We all know it when we hear it, but what is it?

In its simplest terms sound is just a vibration that is transmitted through the air to our ears. Most of us have put our hand on a mechanical device that is vibrating and felt the vibration. Normally we also hear the vibration as it affects the air around us. Sound “waves” are successive areas of air compression or rarefaction. The speed of sound is simply the speed at which those areas of compression and rarefaction pass through the atmosphere.

Think of what happens when you hit a drum. The air directly under the drumhead is compressed. Next to the area of compression there must be an area with less air- an area of rarefication. This is caused by the drumhead bouncing back up. In fact, the drumhead will vibrate back and forth several times, creating a series of areas that are compressed next to areas that are rarefied.

The areas of compressed and rarefied air move out from the drumhead just like ripples on a pond. We call this a sound wave. When it gets to your ears your eardrums move to match the air pressure, and nerves inside your ear pick up the movement and send it to your brain as sound.

If you have ever used a wave editor, or watched someone else use one, you have probably seen a graph of the level of air compression or rarefaction. If you haven’t, take a look at the display of our Wave Creator to see what it looks like. (Note that if you want to experiment with sound waves you can download a free trial version of this software here.

Usually there is a horizontal line in the middle of the display representing no compression or rarefaction. The line representing the sound goes up as air becomes more compressed and down as it becomes less compressed. These changes happen very quickly. The graph of the compression/rarefaction changes over time is often called the “waveform”. Experienced audio engineers can often tell quite a bit about how a recording will sound by viewing the waveform.

Why would someone who is not an audio engineer want to view a waveform? Suppose you made a recording, but there is a loud noise in the middle. With a sound editor and a little experimentation, you can find and even remove that noise!

In the real world the level of air compression or rarefaction changes smoothly. Even a very quick change in the pressure of the air is still a smooth change from one point to another. Analog recordings (usually done today on tape) store all of these smooth changes. The amount of magnetic energy stored on the tape moves smoothly up and down as the intensity of the sound moves up and down.

Computers and other digital equipment are not designed to handle these continuous and gradual changes. Instead, they only understand two values- on and off. The magnetic energy stored on a computer tape or disk consists of ones and zeros- nothing else. If you fed a computer tape directly through an amplifier into a speaker the speaker would interpret the ones as full power and the zeros as no power. The result, instead of being a smooth, gradual shift from one value to another, would be an ugly buzz as the speaker cone tried to keep up with these abrupt changes.

(Note- playing digital data through your stereo system or computer speakers can be hard on your speakers. Take our word for what it sounds like, or turn the volumeway down!)

Fortunately that’s not what happens when playing digital audio. First of all, the ones and zeros are grouped together (normally 8 or 16 at a time) to form larger numbers in the binary numbering system. For example, 00001001 in binary would be read by the computer as the decimal number 9. The sequence of numbers:

00001001
00000111

translates into 9 and 7 in decimal. In this example, using 16 bit numbers, the minimum value would be 0 and the maximum value would be 65335. The change from 9 to 7 within that range would be quite gradual, although not as smooth as would be experienced in an analog system.

Digital audio takes advantage of some peculiarities of acoustics and the human ear. An analog waveform would contain every value between 9 and 7 for at least a very brief length of time. No computer could hold all of these numbers. So, when sound is converted from analog into digital audio, the hardware “samples” the level of the waveform at a specific interval. For CD audio, this interval is 1/44,100th of a second. In other words, 44,100 times each second a special chip calculates a value for analog input and sends it off for use or storage. This process is called “digitizing” a sound.

The result, if we were to graph it as we have with analog waveforms, would look quite different. Instead of smooth, gradual changes we would see stair steps as the line jerked from sampling data point to sampling data point. Here’s a picture showing the difference:

analog vs. digitalThere are two useful terms here- the “sampling rate” and the “sample size”. The sample rate is the number of times per second that the analog signal is measured. The sample size tells us what number is associated with the maximum value. The maximum value of the analog data doesn’t change- if you try to add power past a certain point you just start blowing up hardware. But if the range is from 0 to 1000 the values stored will represent the analog data more closely than if they range from 0 to 10.

Still, if analog data is smooth and digital data is made up of stair steps, why doesn’t digital audio sound bad? The answer is fairly technical, but what it boils down to is that, as long as the samples are taken often enough, the noise created by the stair stepping is too high in frequency for us to hear. According to the theory, the frequency of this noise will always be at least twice the sampling frequency. This is called the Nyquist Limit.

Very few if any humans can hear above about 20,000 cycles per second. Note that the speed chosen for audio CDs is 44,100 cycles per second. It is no coincidence that CD sampling rate is just over twice what our ears can hear.

The conversion of analog data to digital and back to analog is accomplished by special chips. A chip that converts analog to digital is called an ADC- an Analog to Digital Converter. The ADC measures the amount of current at each sampling interval and converts it to a binary number. This is called “digitizing” the sound. On the other end is a chip called a DAC- a Digital to Analog Converter. This chip takes a binary number and converts it to an output voltage.

Here’s what happens if you record your voice using a microphone plugged into your computer, then edit it and play it back over your speaker system: the microphone generates an analog waveform corresponding to the compression and rarefaction cycles generated by your voice. This smooth analog waveform is converted into a series of binary values by the ADC which are then transferred into the memory of your computer. Once you are done editing (if you’ve ever tried editing analog tape you’ll appreciate how much easier digital editing is!) the computer sends the resulting series of binary numbers to the DAC, which converts them to a (relatively) smooth analog waveform that drives your speaker.

Is digital better? Think of the seconds readout of a digital clock as opposed to a smooth sweep second hand on an analog clock. The analog clock can be more accurate, since it shows all of the positions between seconds. The digital clock can be more precise, since it only shows the exact second. Each approach has benefits and drawbacks.

Digital, or digitized, sound is easier to reproduce and manipulate without loss in quality. Some question whether the quality is quite as good as analog sound, but it can be very good indeed, and CDs don’t wear out like records used to. Digital audio can also be compressed much more easily than analog, which is why MP3 is a digital format.

Digital is not necessarily better, but it is different, and offers advantages to engineers and end users that will increase its dominance in the coming years.

 

Taken from http://www.blazeaudio.com/howto/bg-digital.html

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ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

Filed under: DIGITAL AUDIO RECORDING,KNOWLEDGEMENT,Tak Berkategori — Tag:, — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 09.48
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

(1) In statistics, the analysis of a group by determining the characteristics of a significant percentage of its members chosen at random.

(2) Converting analog signals into digital form. Audio and other analog signals are continuous waveforms that are analyzed at various points in time and converted into digital samples. The accuracy with which the digital samples reflect their analog origins is based on “sampling rate” and “sample size.” See A/D converter.

Sampling Rate – When to Measure
The sampling rate is the number of times per second that the waveform is measured, which typically ranges from 8 to 192 thousand times per second (8 kHz to 192 kHz). The greater the rate, the higher the frequency that can be captured. For a comparison of high-quality samples, see high-resolution sampling rates.

The sampling rate must be at least twice that of the analog frequency being captured. For example, the sampling rate used to create the digital data on a CD is 44.1 kHz, slightly more than double the 20kHz frequency an average person can hear. The sampling rate for digitizing voice for a toll-quality conversation is typically 8,000 times per second (8 kHz), twice the 4 kHz required for the full spectrum of the human voice. See analog and Nyquist theorem.

Sample Size – The Measurement
Also called “resolution” and “precision,” the sample size is the measurement of each sample point on a numeric scale. Known as “quantizing,” the sample point is turned into the closest whole number. The more granular the scale (the more increments), the more accurate the digital sample represents the original analog signal. See oversamplingquantization and PCM.

Sampling Sound
The faster the sampling rate and the larger the sample size, the more accurately sound can be digitized. An 8-bit sample breaks the sound wave into 255 increments compared with 65,535 for a 16-bit sample.
Sampling Dialog
This recording dialog from an earlier Sound Blaster sound card shows typical sampling options for digitizing sound into Windows WAV files.

Taken From: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Digital+sampling

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTRUMENTS AND SOUNDS

Filed under: KNOWLEDGEMENT — Tag:, — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 09.24
SOME AESTHETIC AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS

The vast majority of the recording for this library of sounds has taken place in a near-outdoor setting, that is, in the ‘pendopo’ (Javanese style pavillion) of Montebello. Throughout the recording sessions we have maintained the same philosophy/aesthetics: to retain the original qualities of the sound of gamelan instruments, without alteration of any sort. Thus the instruments have been recorded without additional processing, and the natural duration of sounds has not been changed. Sometimes, within the same instrument, a key may resonate longer or shorter than the others; in line with the general philosophy of this catalogue, such differences have been left unaltered. A similar consideration applies to occasional differences in sound quality and timbre within the same instrument. Such differences are not uncommon and are taken as natural in gamelan sets.
In most cases, the instruments have been played and recorded several times, according to different degrees of striking force. With rare exceptions, only one sample has been selected for inclusion in this catalogue. Our choice criterion has been always related to the richest possible spectrum as resulting from the striking technique.
It should be noted that the metallophones of the gamelan, being idiophones, present an important characteristic: together with the basic note they produce ‘partials’ (erratic and unpredictable overtones), rather than ‘harmonics’ (smooth and mathematically related overtones). However, when an individual tube resonator is employed, as is the case with the ‘gender’ family of instruments, harmonics may also be produced.
We mentioned that the gamelan’s metallophones are idiophones. We should add that there is a controversy concerning the gong family of instruments. As the sounding part is the flat area that vibrates around the boss being struck, these instruments may also be considered as membranophones, just like drums.

 

 

LIST OF INSTRUMENTS

Classical Gamelan
Gong Ageng                            6 sounds         Tracks 01-06
Gong Suwukan                        6 sounds         Tracks 07-12
Kempul                                   8 sounds         Tracks 13-20
Kenong Japan                          1 sound           Track  21
Kenong pelog                          8 sounds         Track  22
Kenong slendro                       5 sounds         Track  23
Ketuk/Kempyang                    4 sounds         Tracks 24-26
Engkug Kemong                      2 sounds         Track  27
Bonang Panembung pelog        14 sounds        Tracks 28-29
Bonang Barung pelog               14 sounds        Tracks 30-31
Bonang Panerus pelog              14 sounds        Tracks 32-33
Bonang Barung slendro            10 sounds        Tracks 34-35
Bonang Panerus slendro           10 sounds        Tracks 36-37
Bedug (ceremonial drum)         1 sound           Track  38
Kendhang Ageng                     7 sounds         Track  39
Kendhang Ciblon                     6 sounds         Track  40
Kendhang Ketipung                 2 sounds         Track  41
Gong Kemodong                     1 sound           Track  42
Slenthem pelog                        7 sounds         Track  43
Slenthem slendro                     7 sounds         Track  44
Gender pelog                           17 sounds       Tracks 45-47
Gender slendro                        14 sounds       Tracks 48-50
Gender Panerus slendro           14 sounds       Tracks 51-53
Kemanak                                6 sounds         Track  54
Slentho slendro                        7 sounds         Track  55
Slentho pelog                           7 sounds         Track  56
Demung pelog (iron)                7 sounds         Track  57
Saron pelog (iron)                    7 sounds         Track  58
Saron pelog                             7 sounds         Track  59
Saron slendro                          9 sounds         Track  60
Peking slendro                         7 sounds         Track  61
Peking pelog (iron)                  7 sounds         Track  62
Gambang gangsa pl                  23 sounds       Tracks 63-66
Gambang gangsa sl (iron)         17 sounds       Tracks 67-70
Gambang slendro (wood)        20 sounds        Tracks 71-74
Gambang pelog (wood)           21 sounds        Tracks 75-77
Keprak (wood)                       hits                   Track  78

Chromatic-scale Gamelan
Slenthem  1 octave                  13 sounds        Track  79
Gender  1 octave                     13 sounds        Track  80
Panerus  1 octave                    13 sounds        Track  81
Demung (iron) 1 octave           13 sounds        Track  82
Saron (iron) 1 octave               13 sounds        Track  83
Peking (iron) 1 octave              13 sounds        Track  84
Bonang (iron) 4 octaves           49 sounds        Tracks 85-89

Lithophone (Montebello stones)
Natural tuning                          20 sounds        Track  90
Chromatic re-tuning                 37 sounds        Tracks 91-94

 

 

LIST OF TRACKS

01  gong ageng “2”  (two hits)                                      0:30
02  gong ageng “3”  (two hits)                                      0:28
03  gong ageng “3” ‘Bali’                                             0:22
04  gong ageng ‘Sekar Sepi Sendiri’                            0:19
05  gong ageng “3” (iron)                                             0:15
06  gong ageng “5”                                                      0:28
07  suwukan pelog 6                                                   0:10
08  suwukan pelog 7                                                   0:13
09  suwukan pelog 1                                                   0:21
10  suwukan pelog 2                                                   0:17
11  suwukan slendro 6 ‘antique’                                  0:14
12  suwukan slendro 2                                                0:15
13  kempul slendro 3                                                  0:13
14  kempul slendro 6                                                  0:12
15  kempul slendro 2                                                  0:10
16  kempul pelog 3                                                     0:14
17  kempul pelog 5                                                     0:12
18  kempul pelog 6                                                     0:08
19  kempul pelog 7                                                     0:09
20  kempul pelog 1                                                     0:13
21  kenong japan                                                        0:08
22  kenong pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,1                                      1:19
23  kenong sl 2,3,5,6,1                                               0:55
24  ketuk sl 2                                                              0:04
25  ketuk pl 2                                                             0:04
26  kempyang pl 6, high6                                            0:09
27  engkug kemong sl 6,1                                           0:13
28  bonang panembung pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                      0:45
29                    continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7                  0:33
30  bonang barung pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                             0:29
31        continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7                             0:34
32  bonang panerus pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                            0:30
33        continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7                             0:32
34  bonang barung sl 2,3,5,6,1                                   0:23
35        continues high2,3,5,6,1                                   0:27
36  bonang panerus sl 2,3,5,6,1                                  0:23
37        continues high 2,3,5,6,1                                  0:24
38  bedug  (three hits)                                                 0:13
39  kendhang ageng (7 different hits)                           0:32
40  kendhang ciblon (6 different hits)                           0:26
41  kendhang ketipung (2 different hits)                       0:13
42  gong kemodong                                                    0:17
43  slenthem pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                                       2:06
44  slenthem sl 6,1,2,3,5,6,1                                       2:05
45  gender pl 6,7,1,2,3,5                                            1:11
46        continues high6,7,1,2,3,5                                1:38
47        continues higher6,7,1,2,3                                1:15
48  gender sl 6,1,2,3,5                                                1:00
49        continues high6,1,2,3,5                                   1:07
50        continues higher6,1,2,3                                   0:59
51  gender panerus sl 6,1,2,3,5                                   1:24
52        continues high6,1,2,3,5                                   1:20
53        continues higher6,1,2,3                                   1:01
54  kemanak – six pieces/tones                                    0:44
55  slentho sl 6,1,2,3,5,high6,1                                    0:57
56  slentho pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                                         1:24
57  demung (iron) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                               1:52
58  saron (iron) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                                  1:19
59  saron pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                                           1:35
60  saron sl 6,1,2,3,5,high6,1,2,3                                1:34
61  peking sl 6,1,2,3,5,high6,1                                    1:48
62  peking (iron) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                                0:59
63  gambang gangsa pl 6,7,1,2,3,4,5                           2:16
64        continues high6,7,1,2,3,4,5                             1:29
65        continues higher6,7,1,2,3,4,5                          1:10
66        continues higher6,7                                         0:17
67  gambang gangsa (iron) sl 6,1,2,3,5                        1:01
68        continues high6,1,2,3,5                                   0:42
69        continues higher6,1,2,3,5                                0:37
70        continues higher6,1                                         0:18
71  gambang (wood) sl 6,1,2,3,5                                0:22
72        continues high6,1,2,3,5                                   0:20
73        continues higher6,1,2,3,5                                0:23
74        continues higher6,1,2,3,5                                0:24
75  gambang (wood) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7                          0:30
76        continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7                             0:29
77        continues higher1,2,3,4,5,6,7                          0:31
78  keprak  (various hits)                                            0:20
79  chromatic scale slenthem 13-note C to C               2:49
80  chromatic scale gender  13-note C to C                2:50
81  chromatic scale gender panerus  13-note C to C    2:56
82  chromatic scale demung (iron)  13-note C to C      3:04
83  chromatic scale saron (iron)  13-note C to C         2:07
84  chromatic scale peking (iron)  13-note C to C       2:01
85  chromatic scale bonang (iron)  12-note octave       1:04
86        continues 12-note higher octave                      0:55
87        continues 12-note higher octave                      0:53
88        continues 12-note higher octave                      0:51
89        continues highest C                                         0:07
90  lithophone – 20 natural sounds (found tuning)         1:26
91  lithophone – chromatic scale  3-note A to B           0:15
92        continues 12-note higher octave                      0:50
93        continues 12-note higher octave                      0:51
94        continues 10-note higher C to A                      0:42

 

 

FAMILIES OF INSTRUMENTS

Hanging Gongs: gong ageng, gong suwukan, kempul
Resting Gongs: kenong, ketuk, kempyang, bonang (panembung, barung, panerus)
Drums: bedug, kendhang ageng, ciblon, ketipung
Gender: gong kemodong, slenthem, gender, gender panerus
Kemanak: kemanak
Saron: slentho, demung, saron, peking, gambang gangsa
Gambang: gambang

 

 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTRUMENTS AND SOUNDS

With the exception of ‘drums’ and ‘gambang’, all instruments of the traditional gamelan presented here are metallophones, where the entire instrument or the sounding element is made of metal, and the sounding element is struck with mallets or sticks of various shapes and hardness according to the type of sound required. The metal is normally bronze, an alloy comprising 10 parts of copper and 3 parts of tin, and it needs to be forged – not simply cast – through a long, hard, and complex process. Sometimes iron is used instead of bronze. Iron instruments, cheaper and somewhat simpler to make, are less ‘noble’ than bronze instruments, but it should be noted that, when properly made, their sound is not at all to be looked down on. On occasion – subjectively, and for reasons too long to be discussed here – their sound might even be better liked. In our lists all metallophones are made of bronze, except when ‘iron’ is explicitly indicated.
For pitch-range of the instruments, see the table providing such information. Another table shows the pitches and intervals of the two Javanese scales of our gamelan – slendro and pelog – and their relation to the 12-tone Western chromatic scale. By way of completeness, it should be said that the Javanese scales have ‘stretching octaves’.

Gong ageng
Diameter: 90-100 cm. Weight: 70-80 kg. It is hung vertically from a stand or ‘gayor’. It is played by beating against the boss with a mallet that has a spherical, heavily padded head. Its musical function is a very important one, marking the close of the longest cycle (‘gongan’) within a gamelan composition. It is also regarded as the repository of the spirit of the gamelan.
The gong ageng is the lowest-pitched instrument in a gamelan. Its deep sound is rich in overtones, has a built-in beat-note (‘ombak’), and its decay-time may go over twenty seconds. While normally one or two such instruments are present in a gamelan, our library has six, including an iron one and one with the lowest pitch (‘2’) that can be normally encountered (not considering the very large, sacred and unplayed gongs resting in the secret chambers of the kratons).

Gong suwukan
Diameter: 70-80 cm. Weight: 35-40 kg. These are the middle range of the hanging gongs. They substitute the gong ageng in certain fast-playing pieces, or magically emphasise certain points of the long, stately compositions (‘gendhing ageng’).

Kempul
Diameter: 45-60 cm. Weight: 8-15 kg. The smallest of the hanging gongs. They are used as punctuating instruments or as reinforcement of notes in certain pieces. The mallets decrease in size and weight going from the gong ageng to the kempul.

Kenong
Diameter: 35-40 cm. Height: 30-35 cm. Weight: around 10 kg.
The kenong is a small gong laid horizontally on crossed cord, and sitting inside a wooden frame. Having an individual frame for each sounding element (‘pencon’) makes us count the number of frames (14 in our list of instruments); on the other hand, when 10 to 14 pencon sit in one common frame, as in the bonang, we count that as one instrument.
The kenong has a relatively high-pitched and clear sound, which is obtained by beating the boss with a stick provided with a cylindrical head padded with coiled string. Its musical function is to divide the gong-cycles into (usually) four sub-cycles (‘kenongan’).
The kenong japan (or jepang) is a special lower-pitched kenong tuned to a particular tone (‘5’) and used mainly in Yogya-style gamelan.

KetukKempyangEngkug kemong
Ketuk and kempyang are two small horizontal gongs (diameters 28 and 23 cm) which mark the pulse within the kenong-cycle. The engkug kemong (often hanging rather than resting on cord) may take up the role of the kempyang in slendro pieces.

Bonang panembung
A bonang instrument consists of a double row of resting gongs: 14 in pelog, 12 or 10 in slendro, comprising approximately two octaves. The kettles rest on cord in a horizontal wooden frame.
The bonang panembung is the largest and lowest in pitch of the bonang instruments; length around 250 cm., diameter of kettle around 30 cm., weight of kettle around 5 kg. The panembung is considered an archaic instrument, more frequently used in Yogyanese ensembles.

Bonang barung
Often just called ‘bonang’, this is the middle-sized of this group of instruments. Length: 170-230 cm. Diameter of kettle around 24 cm. Musically, the bonang barung has a melodic leading role in pieces of the so-called loud style. The lower octave of the bonang barung coincides with the higher of the panembung, and its higher octave coincides with the lower of the panerus.

Bonang panerus
Length: 140-200 cm. Diameter of kettle around 20 cm. The highest in pitch, the bonang panerus has an important function in playing interlocking patterns with the bonang barung. All bonang instruments are played with two long sticks bound with cord at the striking end.

Bedug
This is a large ceremonial double-face drum. Length: 90 cm. Diameter of each face: 55 cm. It is often suspended and is struck with a beater. Its function is quite different with respect to the following kendhang instruments.

Kendhang agengciblonketipung
These are the important tempo-leading instruments, made of hollowed tree-trunk sections with cow or goat skin stretched across the two open ends. Lengths are, respectively, 78, 68, and 48 cm. Diameters of the larger face in each drum: 38, 28, 20 cm. They are played with bare hands, using a variety of striking modalities to produce different intended sounds. Normally the kendhang ageng and ketipung are used in combination during slow tempos, while the ciblon is used in fast tempos and to accompany dance or wayang.

Gong kemodong
This is a substitute of the gong ageng, sometimes used in reduced ensembles. It obtains the sound through a construction design that actually belongs to the family of gender instruments – that is, bronze bars suspended over a resonator. The desired beat-note of the gong ageng is obtained by striking, at the same time or in rapid succession, two bars with slightly diverging pitches.

Slenthem
Length: 85 cm. Height: 37 cm. Seven bars are suspended over individual tube-resonators. Bars are struck with a stick having a padded disk as a head. This instrument carries the basic (skeleton or ‘balungan’) melody of any piece.

Gender
Lenght: 115 cm. Fourteen thin bars over individual tuned resonators, covering almost three octaves. Two sticks, similar but smaller than the one of the slenthem, are used in a two-hand (rather difficult) technique. It is considered to be one of the finest instruments in the gamelan.

Gender panerus
Lenght: 95 cm. Same as the gender but playing one octave higher. Used for ornamenting the musical parts of the gender, with a doubled density of notes.

Kemanak
A banana-shaped bronze instrument, 24 cm. long, 4 cm. wide, held in one hand and struck with a mallet with the other. It is used in pairs, requiring two musicians. The two single notes produced in alternation create a rhythmic pattern which is typical of the ancient gamelan repertoire.

Slentho
Another archaic, seldom used instrument, which opens the family of saron instruments at the lowest register. Its seven knobbed heavy bars rest over a trough resonator. It has the same range and musical function as the slenthem. Length of the instrument: 115 cm.

Demung
Length: 105 cm. Seven bars, over a trough resonator, struck with a wooden hammer.

Saron
Length: 85 cm. Seven bars (nine for slendro) as above, one octave higher.

Peking
Length: 70 cm. As above, one octave higher. The hammer needs to be harder, so it is made of buffalo horn.

Gambang gangsa
With a length of 160 cm., this old-style saron-type multi-octave instrument accomodates the pitch-ranges from demung to peking. In our library, the 23 pelog notes derive from two instruments (demung-saron saron-peking) which have an overlapping octave. Similar is the case of the 17 notes in the slendro scale.

Gambang
Length: 160 cm. This is the only gamelan instrument with tuned bars made of (hard) wood. Its 21 bars (30 to 55 cm. long, 5 to 7 cm. wide) cover more than three octaves, rest over a trough resonator, and are struck with two long sticks made of supple buffalo horn ending with a small, round, padded disc. Musically, it has a function of ornamentation.

Keprak
This is a resonant wooden box which is struck with a small wooden hammer. It is used in dance performances to provide signals to the dancers.

 

Chromatic instruments

Our library includes sounds that are related to gamelan sounds and instruments, but not part of the traditional music of Central Java. As a non-unique case, the Montebello gamelan instrumentarium includes items that were expressly built by Javanese gamelan-makers in the Western 12-tone tempered scale, having as a model of construction three of the families of instruments of the traditional gamelan: the gender, the saron, the bonang.

In the gender family we have:
– a huge (160 cm.) 13-note, C to C, “slenthem”
– a mid-size (110 cm.) “gender” in the higher octave
– a smaller (90 cm.) “panerus” in the next higher octave.

In the saron family, with bars made of iron:
– a 13-note, C to C, “demung”
– a “saron” in the higher octave
– a “peking” in the next higher octave.

In the bonang family we have forty-nine kettles, made of iron, covering four octaves, in the range of bonang panembung through bonang panerus. In this case, the resting gongs are not provided with fixed supporting frames, so as to allow enough flexibility to play in situations involving a varying number of players. A solution has been devised in terms of a circular board divided into three movable sections which can be arranged in various ways.
One last type of instrument included in our library is a lithophone. Such inclusion is justified, among other things, by the fact that the very notion of striking (gamel) is ever-present in Javanese and Balinese music-making. Even ‘water-gamelan’ exists, where rhythmically hitting the water with varying positions of the hands produces pleasant sound patterns. And as to ‘stone-gamelan’, a living example is normally offered in a sonorous cave in Pacitan, half-way between Surakarta and Yogyakarta, where music is played on walls, stalactites and stalagmites of the cave. Recordings of these forms of gamelan are available.
The Montebello lithophone is made of twenty slabs recovered from parts (mostly steps of staircases) of an old house. The stone is struck with the wooden mallet used for the Javanese saron. We first present the twenty natural sounds in their ‘found tuning’. Then – and this is the only electronic intervention in the whole library – we present three octaves of sounds chromatically tuned in the 12-tone Western scale, derived from the natural sounds.

 

John Noise Manis

John Palmer

[email protected][email protected][email protected]              [email protected]
www.gamelan.it                                                                                   www.johnpalmer.org
www.gamelan.to

November 2006

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SELAMAT HARI RAYA GALUNGAN DAN KUNINGAN 2013

Filed under: KARYA-KARYA MASTERPICES,KNOWLEDGEMENT — Tag:, — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 01.00

Please Download: Master Karya Instrumentalia berjudul:

“HAPPY GALUNGAN & KUNINGAN DAY – MY BALINESE FRIENDS”

http://kingjazz.mymusicstream.com/track/happy-galungan-kuningan-day-my-balinese-friends

Bayu Wirawan – Musics Composer, Arranger, Producer, Audio Engineer, Analogue to Digital Sampling Gamelan Gong Kebyar.

Andrika “Touch”: Lead Guitarist

————————————————————————————————————————————–

Harumnya Asap Dupa Wanginya Bunga Serta Indahnya Lantunan Mantra Yang Dikumandangkan Membawa Keheningan Dan Kedamaian Dalam Pikiran Dan Hati Untuk Mendekatkan Diri Pada NYA.

OM SWASTIASTU …

“KING JAZZ” MENGUCAPKAN;

“RAHAJENG NYANGGRA RAHINA JAGAD , GALUNGAN LAN KUNINGAN
DUMOGI IDA SANG HYANG WIDI WACA MICAYANG KERAHAYUAN”
_______________________________________________________________________________________

*Story Behind The MASTERPIECE’s Scene:

“HAPPY GALUNGAN & KUNINGAN DAY – MY BALINESE FRIENDS”

http://kingjazz.mymusicstream.com/track/happy-galungan-kuningan-day-my-balinese-friends
Karya Masterpieces ‘Lead Jazz Rock Guitar Ethnic’s Bali Jazz’ ini diciptakan tepat pada Hari Raya Galungan (Rabu, 27 Maret 2013), di KING JAZZ STUDIO next to ISI Denpasar Bali.
Direkam tadi pagi hingga siang hari Kamis 28 Maret 2013. Mixing dilakukan tadi Sore Hari Kamis 28 Maret 2013.
Song Writer, Composer, Arranger, Producer: Bayu Wirawan (King Jazz)
Lead Jazz Rock Guitarist: ANDRIKA “TOUCH”
Studio Recording & Mastering: “KING JAZZ” RECORD STUDIO – ISI Denpasar Bali
———————————————————————————–
Profile ANDRIKA “TOUCH” – THE BEST JAZZ GUITARIST MICROTONAL in The WORLD
Murid dari Maestro Guitarist Dunia: Steve Vai, Joe Satriani, Lee Ritenour, Joe Scofield, Frank Gambale (Chick Corea Jazz Guitarist) – U.S.A
Dari Keluarga Pemilik 2 dari Major Label Studio Jakarta, Producer Rekaman dari Artis-Artis Selebriti Band-Band Besar & Terkenal di Indonesia, diantaranya; FEAT TO BLACK, Syahrini, Anang, Krisdayanti, BENYAMIN S, COKLAT, KLA, dll …
————————————————————————————
Kini ANDRIKA mempelajari dan mendalami Ilmu Harmony Jazz MicroTonal Composition n’ Arrangement secara Private kepada KING JAZZ di Denpasar Bali, dan KING JAZZ bersama Muridnya ini mencoba mempersembahkan KARYA MASTERPIECE terbaru dalam rangka merayakan Hari Raya Umat Hindu Bali: GALUNGAN & KUNINGAN 2013.
Nantikan Terus Album Karya Masterpieces KING JAZZ n’ ANDRIKA ‘TOUCH” akan dibagikan GRATIS …
Silahkan Di-Download, Semoga Bermanfaat ….. 😉

(PARAMA SHANTI): OM, SHANTI, SHANTI, SHANTI. OM.”

Hormat Kami:
Bayu Wirawan, DR.

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Hallo PLANET!!! Welcome To BAYU WIRAWAN’s (KING JAZZ) UNIVERSAL MUSIC MASTERPIECE …

Filed under: CURRICULUM VITAE (C.V),DIGITAL AUDIO RECORDING,KARYA-KARYA MASTERPICES,KING JAZZ LESSON,KNOWLEDGEMENT,Tak Berkategori — Tag: — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 05.07

Welcome to Bayu Wirawan’s (KING JAZZ) Universal Music Masterpieces here ….

Let me introduced as shortest as possible about my self. (Below is My C.V please).

The CURRICULUM VITAE of BAYU WIRAWAN

No. Telp (H.P): 0838 6242 6203

e-mail: [email protected]

Facebook: KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan),

Facebook: KING JAZZ MASTERPIECE

Twitter: KING JAZZ RECORD

 Tempat Tinggal (sementara): Jl. SMA 3 Gang VI.B no 8 – Sumerta – Denpasar Timur – BALI

 

Nama: Bayu Wirawan, Dr.Edu, Dr.Mus, Dr.Hc, M.Mus, M.Art, B.Mus

Agama: Katholik

Tempat/Tanggal Lahir:  JAYAPURA, 14 JUNI 1971

Nama Orang Tua: P. SOESILO, Prof. Dr. (Paulus Susilo, Pensiunan Depdikbud KAKANWIL Propinsi Irian Jaya – Depdikbud KAKANWIL Sejarah Kepurbakalaan Propinsi Timor-Timur, KA Museum Nasional, DOSEN Guru Besar Anthropology UNCEN, UGM)

Nama Ibu: Agnes Martini, drs. Msc (Pensiunan Kepsek SMAN ! Dili – Timor-Timur)

 

EDUCATION’S  HISTORY (PENDIDIKAN):

1)     KINDER GARDEN / TK: 1977 – 1978 TK. KUNTUM MEKAR ARGAPURA, TK. SARINAH JAYAPURA, IRIAN JAYA (WEST PAPUA)

2)     ELEMENTARY / SD: 1978 – 1985 SD. KRISTUS RAJA DOK V JAYAPURA IRIAN JAYA (WEST PAPUA)

3)     SECONDARY HIGH / SMP: 1984 – 1985 SMPK PAULUS VI DILI, TIMOR TIMUR (EAST TIMOR / TIMOR LESTE)

4)     SENIOR HIGH / SMA: 1987 – 1990 SMAN 2 PURWOKERTO, JAWA TENGAH (CENTRAL JAVA)

5)     INDONESIAN OPEN UNIVERSITY – ENGLISH FACULTY –JAKARTA  -1990

6)     LITURGY MUSIC CENTER  – YOGYAKARTA – 1990

 

GRADUATED:

7)     S1 – BACHELOR OF MUSIC IN PRODUCTION – ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY – 1993

8)     S2 – MASTER OF ARTS  – CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO – 2005

9)     S2 – MASTER OF MUSIC – NEW YORK UNIVERSITY – 2007

10)  S3 – DOCTOR HONORIS CAUSA (HONORARY DOCTOR IN MANAGEMENT) – UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII – 2001

11) S3 – DOCTOR  OF MUSIC – UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE – 2008

12) S3 – DOCTOR OF EDUCATION – UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA – 2008

 

 

‘SKILLS AND EXPERTS ON’ –  (TRAMPIL DAN AHLI DI DALAM BIDANG-BIDANG):

 

MUSIC:

  • JAZZ PIANIST, KEYBOARD, DRUM (PERCUSSION), GUITAR
  • MUSIC COMPOSITION AND ARRANGEMENT
  • MUSICS INSTRUCTOR, CONSULTANT, SEMINAR & WORKSHOPS SOURCE SPEAKER
  • MUSICS CRITIC , ANALIST, MUSICS JUDGE IN TV/RADIO BROADCAST, SINGING CONTEST & MUSIC COMPETITIONS / BAND FESTIVALS
  • A JAZZ PIANIST  ( EXPERT ON JAZZ IMPROVISATION ON PIANO)
  • IMPROMPTU JAZZ (LIVE JAZZ IMPROVISATION ON PIANO WITHOUT CONCEPTS)
  • EXPERT IN JAZZ ETHNIC’S COMPOSITIONS AND ARRANGEMENTS
  • A JAZZ DRUMMER
  • SOUND / AUDIO ENGINEER – LIVE MUSICS SOUND DESIGNER
  • RECORDING ENGINEER SPECIALIST (ANALOG & DIGITAL MEDIA)
  • RECORDING DIRECTOR
  • RECORDING MUSIC PRODUCER (MUSIC PRODUCTIONS)
  • JAZZ COMBO MUSICS / LIVE SHOW PERFORMANCE EXCLUSIVE PRODUCER
  • CHURCH ORGEN CLASSICAL COMPOSER & ARRANGER
  • CLASSICAL ORCHESTRA DIRECTOR, COMPOSER & ARRANGER
  • JAZZ ORCHESTRA / JAZZ BIG BAND DIRECTOR, COMPOSER & ARRANGER
  • DIGITAL RECORDING STUDIO DESIGNER EXPERTS
  • MUSIC CONCERTS & PERFORMING ARTS EXCLUSIVE
  • SEQUENCER COMPOSER / DIGITAL COMPUTER MUSIC PROGRAMER
  • ANALOGUE & DIGITAL AUDIO MASTER RECORDING & MASTERING MUSIC ALBUMS (MULTI TRACK RECORDING & MIXING) EXPERT
  • ETHNIC MUSICS & JAZZ FUSIONS COMPOSER & ARRANGER – ETHNIC’S JAZZ PERFORMANCES
  • POP  MUSICS PRODUCER – COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIES MUSIC’S PRODUCTION
  • MUSIC  SCHOOL CURRICULLUM’S DESIGNER EXPERT
  • MUSIC  SCHOOL INSTRUCTOR  EXPERT

 

FILM AND VIDEO:

  • FILM MAKING – FILM MOVIE PRODUCTIONS – PRODUCER
  • FILM DIRECTOR
  • FILM EDITOR
  • SCRIPT WRITER
  • CAMERAMAN
  • FILM MAKE UP

 

COMPUTER

  • HARDWARES & SOFTWARES
  • COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
  • MUSIC PROGRAMMING AND EDITING
  • VIDEO MOVIE PROGRAMMING AND EDITING
  • COMPUTER DESIGN GRAPHIC
  • COMPUTER NETWORKING
  • COMPUTER MANAGEMENT – I.T (INFORMATIC’S TECHNOLOGY)

 

MANAGEMENT

  • BUSINESSES MANAGEMENT
  • SUPERVISING AND MANAGEMENT
  • EDUCATION’S CONSULTANT
  • MARKETING EXPERT
  • PROJECTS MANAGEMENT

 

ENGLISH

  • BUSINESSES – NETWORKING
  • EDUCATION – TEACHING

 

MIND PROGRAMMING – MOTIVATOR

  • HYPNOTHERAPY
  • NEURO LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING (N.L.P)
  • MIND POWER – SUBCONSCIOUS MIND PROGRAMMING
  • BRAIN OPTIMIZED MEGA CREATIVES
  • SKILLFUL ULTIMATE HUMAN BEING MIND PROGRAM

Please Download My Videos, when Captured any of me in Doing Life Impromptu Recording Spontaneously on the Babby Grand Kawai Piano. “Without The Concept is The Concept” – Bayu Wirawan (King Jazz)

201202058

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The Power of Dreams

Filed under: CATATAN DAN RENUNGAN,KNOWLEDGEMENT,UNIVERSE SCIENCE — Tag: — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 15.30

The Power of Dreams

At one of the newest and biggest bookstores in Tokyo, Japan, you can find one section devoted to the books of one author. The titles are, The Power of Cleaning To Make Your Dreams Come True, Change Yourself with The Power of Cleaning, Solve Your Problems by The Power of Cleaning. These books are all bestsellers.

This is the story of Mr. Masuda, a man who achieved his dreams of success. He is the author of The Power of Cleaning series. Since he published his first book in 2005, he has gone on o publish 13 books within two years and more than one million copies of the books have been sold.

Revealing the State of Your Mind

Mr. Masuda explains, “The power of cleaning integrates leaning and the Laws of the Mind. I often say that your home represents the state of your mind. The state of your home shows what state your mind is in. By taking the action of cleaning, you can actually clean your mind. If you do this, you will not only be able to clean your home, but at the same time, you will have a revolutionary change in your mind-state. And that is how you can change your life.”

Destroyed Hopes and Dreams of Success

It was not easy for Mr. Masuda to achieve his dreams of success. Ten years earlier he was in the midst of a terrible ordeal. When he was 27, he had jumped at an offer to start his own business. His main motivation at the time was to make a lot of money as fast as he could. Before long, he found himself bankrupt. Soon after, he went through a divorce. His hopes and dreams of success were destroyed. The only thing he had left was a huge amount of debt.

“When I was in the depths of disappointment,” he recalls, “my place was a dump. That is when one of my friends came over and told me I had to stop living like that. He opened the window and the wind raised the dust in the room. Seeing it I was embarrassed. Then, my friend told me to start by cleaning the toilet. While I was cleaning, all the feelings that I had pent up came out and I burst into tears. When I finished cleaning my place, I could really feel that I could start life over again. That was the very first moment I realized the power of cleaning.”

The Power of Cleaning Was A Ray of Light

The power of cleaning came into his life like a ray of light. Mr. Masuda got a job at a house cleaning company and restarted his life. That was when another ray of light was able to shine into his life. A friend gave him Master Okawa’s book, The Laws of the Sun, and Mr. Masuda started learning the spiritual laws.

From The Laws of the Sun, he learned the purpose and the mission of life as well as the meaning of hardships and suffering. He was deeply touched by the words in the book. Impressed, he decided to learn Master Ryuho Okawa’s teachings and he started going to seminars at Happy Science and volunteering. One day, he received an inspiration.

“I had many discoveries through studying and taking seminars at Happy Science, but I was never quite sure how those discoveries were connected to my cleaning job. One day, when I was doing volunteer cleaning at the Happy Science temple, I received the inspiration “Cleaning is powerful.” That is when I thought of the term “The Power of Cleaning.” My inner voice then said, “If you clean with your whole heart, you can produce a positive energy through cleaning.”

With a selfless mind, Mr. Masuda continued volunteering and deepened his discoveries. “I thought about how I could clean the temple so that people would smile when they visited. Until then, it was all about how I could make myself feel better, but my mind changed from benefiting myself to being of help to others.”Mr. Masuda gradually began to wish to contribute to the other’s happiness by using his knowledge and skills.

The Law of Like-Attracts-Like

Mr. Masuda explains, “As I learned in Master Okawa’s books, ‘like attracts like.’ This is the spiritual law that minds of the same wavelength attract each other. So, I understood that it was the same as when a room becomes messy, and it attracts more messiness. If you live in a messy place, you create a negative energy around you that attracts unhappiness. But the act of throwing things out will clear the way for you, bringing an innovation into your life. It is one of the most effective ways to change. Now whenever I hit a wall, I get rid of something so that I can experience an innovation and take a step forward. I thought this kind of idea could really help other people as well.”

melaluiThe Power of Dreams.

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The Courage to Live Creatively

Filed under: CATATAN DAN RENUNGAN,KNOWLEDGEMENT — Tag: — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 15.19

The Courage to Live Creatively

It was back in 2002, when my company, Aura, had just established its own original product brand and its name was fast becoming renowned throughout the industry. My business was doing great but, at home, I had just learned that my wife had joined Happy Science which was a different religion from the one that I followed.

My name is Mr. Nonomura, and this is a chapter from my Workbook of Life in how I summoned the courage to live more creatively in my business.

“Self-reflection leads to progress”

I was a long time believer of Tenrikyo*; therefore, I was skeptical about Happy Science. Ever since I lost my father at the age of 14, Tenrikyo had been my emotional support throughout my life, helping me through those tough days when I was working like crazy to support the family and my own education.

*Tenrikyo: A Japanese religion that emerged in the 1800s.

However, the change that Happy Science brought upon my wife was hard to ignore. She became a gentler person and she said things that sometimes amazed me. She even quit smoking – something I had never been able to get her to do. I became curious to know what was written in the books she was reading and studying so earnestly.

What I found were teachings that gave answers to questions I had harbored for a long time and which gave direction on how to progress towards the future. One of the teachings that left a special impression on me was on how self-reflection leads to progress: reflecting on yourself and correcting your mistakes is progress for you as an individual. I decided I would join Happy Science and study these teachings further. However, although I could understand how self-reflection would help clear your mind, I had yet to fully realize how self-reflection would lead to progress.

Soon I was given an opportunity to obtain a shop space in a commercial complex situated in a prime location in Kyoto. This was a great opportunity for the company and, though I was well aware of the risks, I decided to take it. To my surprise, all my employees were against the idea. I ignored their disapproval and went ahead with it anyway, hoping that the success in the new venture would bring them around. However, the rift between myself and my employees grew, and sales performance faltered.

Did I make the right decision? Three weeks had passed after the store opening but the confidence in my decision was waning. That was when my wife suggested I visit a Happy Science temple near Lake Biwako to practice a meditation called, “The Four Season Meditation.”

Awakening to True Progress

I was in the midst of the ‘winter meditation’ when I saw my past clearly, as if it was reflected on the surface of a lake. I saw myself pursuing my dreams of success with little regard for my family and with no appreciation for my employees because I thought I was doing all the work myself.

“Maybe I had become arrogant in thinking that I could do everything the way I wanted to?” I thought. “My employees’ opposition is biting cold like the wind in winter, but perhaps it’s a gift from God for me to wake up to the importance of the people around me…”

That was when I realized that what was lacking in me was: gratitude. In that instant, I felt myself slipping free of the heavy layers of pride and desire for prestige and fame that covered my heart. Then tears ran down my cheeks as I became overwhelmed with gratitude for everyone who had supported me so far.

The last part of the meditation required me to draw a picture of my past, present and future. I was born and raised in rural Japan, so my expectations of how far I would get in life were not so high. But as I drew freely, I suddenly saw a vision of myself soaring to achieve great things on a global scale and even in the field of space technology.

“What is this!? Is this the future me?” I could scarcely believe I could rise to such heights. Until then, I carried a sense of guilt about achieving success. A bitter experience of having to help pay for a relative’s huge debt when his company went bankrupt ten years ago had made me think, “It’s better to lead a mediocre life than to cause problems for a lot of people by trying to succeed big and failing.” But Happy Science taught differently.

“If your personal happiness is the kind of happiness that will lead to the happiness of all humankind… then that is the right kind of thought; it will cause no problems when it is realized. This is the kind of thought that you should aim for, the kind in which your personal happiness and the happiness of humankind can be realized as one.”

[The Laws of Happiness | Published by Lantern Books]

I discovered that my anxieties came from not knowing that one can realize both one’s own happiness and that of others too. If my company’s success and expansion are for the sake of benefiting the world, then it’s a good thing. This realization gave me enormous encouragement and swept away al l my worries. I had a tendency to blame my employees whenever things didn’t go as planned, but I was determined to change that. To stop the harsh words from leaving my mouth, I took a deep breath whenever I felt it coming and calmed my mind. In this way, I worked to mend the rift between myself and my employees. I had finally learned what it meant to leap from self-reflection to progress.

melaluiThe Courage to Live Creatively.

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Adversity is the Biggest Opportunity

Filed under: CATATAN DAN RENUNGAN — Tag: — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 15.16

Adversity is the Biggest Opportunity

This is the story of Mr. Inoue and how he had experienced three bankruptcies before realizing what real success actually us.

A Tough Childhood

Growing up I was already despondent about life. My father was a gambler who loved to bet on horses. We lived luxuriously when he won big, but when he fell into a losing streak, we were so poor my parents couldn’t even afford to buy me shoes for school. Worse, he was generous to a fault and often ended up shouldering his friend’s debts. It wasn’t just once or twice that debt-collectors came banging at our door, and once we even had to abandon the house in the night to escape them. My dream to someday become president of my own company became my only hope out of that kind of life.

Wealth at 28

I realized my dream when I was 28. After graduating from college, I worked for a foreign-owned insurance company for several years and then became independent. Japan was in the midst of the so-called “bubble economy” and my new business did tremendously well until one morning stock prices plunged nation wide, and my company went bankrupt after only four short months of business.

I was somewhat shocked, but immediately jumped into starting my next business as a secretary-service provider. Once again I was successful and I was rich. Renting a luxury 800,000 yen/month (US $8,000/month) condo and living extravagantly, I was utterly confident in my entrepreneurship. On top of that, my sense of money was totally paralyzed – I was going through millions of yen (tens of thousands of dollars) every month with no memory of what I spent it all on.

Discovering the Meaning to Life

Around that time, a customer recommended that I read books of Happy Science, and I began to read these books that spoke of “Buddha’s Truth.”

“Humans are born with a life plan in order to polish their souls.” “Calamities and hardships also provide food for polishing your soul.”

The many questions I had about life were dispelled as I read more and more of the books. Convinced that these teachings were real, I soon joined as a member but although I was moved by the teachings, old habits die hard and my extravagant lifestyle remained unchanged. Before long, the competition in the secretary service business intensified. Unable to continue making a profit, I had to close that company as well.

melaluiAdversity is the Biggest Opportunity.

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Seeing Myself from a New Perspective

Filed under: CATATAN DAN RENUNGAN,MANAGEMENT,UNIVERSE SCIENCE — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 15.01

Seeing Myself from a New PerspectiveI discovered Happy Science in 1987 and have been a member ever since. For every retreat that I joined, I left feeling full of light. For this time, I was able to understand the Eightfold Path and about self-reflection. My name is Lyn, I come from New Zealand and these are the discoveries I made at this autumn 2010 retreat…Seeing My True MindIn meditation, you are meant to step out of yourself and look upon yourself from above. However, when seeing themselves, many people may think, “No, that’s not me. It couldn’t be me.” I was quite like this myself.During the retreat, I could easily perceive my family situation. I know that most part of me is good – I try and do good Happy Science work in my community and act like a member of something so wonderful. However, my husbandand my three kids know me warts and all. I could see the amount of ugliness that I was holding in my mind. If I were to go to the other world, it would be a weight pulling me down. Sometimes I am screaming and yelling at my kids wanting them to obey me and I think to myself, “Angels of light can’t be around this vibration,” but I just can’t stop it.

melalui Seeing Myself from a New Perspective.

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GONG KEBYAR MUSIK JAZZ BALI – Presented by: “KING JAZZ” (Bayu Wirawan)

Filed under: CATATAN DAN RENUNGAN,KNOWLEDGEMENT,MUSIC REFFERENCES,PENEMUAN,TUGAS-TUGAS KULIAH (ASSIGNMENTS) — Tag: — KING JAZZ (Bayu Wirawan) @ 07.16
  • SEJARAH JAZZ
  1. ¢STORY BLACK SLAVERY IN U.S.A
  2. ¢MELTING POT CULTURE
  3. ¢WHITE BRASS FROM EUROPE
  4. ¢BLACK BRASS IN U.S.A
  5. ¢BLACK BRASS IN EUROPE
  6. ¢ENSEMBLE OF JAZZ
  7. ¢JAZZ SPREADS THE WORLDS
  • PORTUGUESE COLONY
  1. ¢MALAKA CONQUERED
  2. ¢CULTURES & TRADITIONS INFLUENCES
  3. ¢MUSIC’S CULTURES
  • JAZZ HISTORY IN INDONESIA
  1. ¢W.R. Soepratman
  2. ¢Indonesian Young Combo Jazz Band
  3. ¢Jazz Concerts Around Borzois / Kingdom Circumstances
  4. ¢People Participations, Appreciation And Intention For Collaboration With Local Ethnics Music
  5. ¢Local Composers And The Musical’s Influences
  6. ¢Ensemble Local Ethnic Cultures
  • PORTUGUESE AT BULELENG SINGARAJA – BALI
  1. ¢ANCIENT SCRIPT (TULISAN LONTAR)
  2. ¢KING OF BULELENG
  3. ¢ACULTURATION
  4. ¢MUSIC COLLABORATION
  5. ¢FORMING ART
  • A JAZZ (MUSICAL) DISCOURSES
  1. ¢DICTION DIALECTICAL
  2. ¢HAWAII UKULELE = JARI YANG MELOMPAT
  3. ¢MOTIVE: PROUNGA, MACINA, JITERA
  4. ¢ONOMATOPOEIC – ARS NOVA
  5. ¢SPREADS WHOLE OVER INDONESIA BY DUTCH TROOPERS
  6. ¢KERONCONG FRAISES
  7. ¢Rhythm Riff = WADITRA: CAVAQUINHO dimainkan secara Rasgueado in Cak, Cuk, Mandaolin
  8. ¢Kendhang Cello
  9. ¢Bass Pizzicato
  10. ¢Guitar: Floating Melody Line: Mbredel Banyu
  11. ¢Flute, Violin: Melody Filler
  12. ¢Expressed by Singer: Caracao (Stereotyped – Impromptu
  13. ¢Rubato – follow on singer expresses
  14. ¢Monodic Orchestration = The Art of Accompaniment
  15. ¢The Symponic Poem
  16. ¢The Singer not The Song
  • CONCLUSION
  1. ¢MUSICAL HYBRID
  2. ¢ACCUMULATION GENRES
  3. ¢Portuguese, Dutch, India, China, Arab, Afrika, Oceanian
  4. ¢MUSICAL DICTION – DIALECTICAL
  5. ¢VOCAL EXPRESSER
  6. ¢THE ART OF ACCOMPANIMENTS
  7. ¢STAMBUL ENTR’ACTE: Bridging Part Repertoire
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