Peranan Seruti Dalam Pepatutan Gamelan Semarpegulingan

This post was written by arysanjaya on Mei 8, 2012
Posted Under: Tak Berkategori

SemarPagulinganadalahsebuah gamelan yang dekathubungannyadengan gamelan Gambuh, di manaiajugamerupakanperpaduanantara gamelan GambuhdanLegong. SemarPagulinganmerupakan gamelan rekreasiuntukistana raja-raja zamandahulu.Biasanyadimainkanpadawaktu raja-raja akankepraduan (tidur). Gamelan inijugadipergunakanuntukmengiringitariLekodanGandrung yang semuladilakukanolehabdi raja-raja kraton.SemarPagulinganmemakailaraspelog 7 nada, terdiridari 5 nada pokokdan 2 nada pamero. Repertoire dari gamelan inihampirkeseluruhannyadiambildariPegambuhan (kecualigendingLeko) dansemuamelodi-melodi yang mempergunakan 7 nada dapatsegeraditransferkedalam gamelan SemarPagulingan.Bentukdari gamelan SemarPagulinganmencerminkanjuga gamelan Gong, tetapilebihkecildanlebihmanisdisebabkankarenahilangnyareongmaupungangsa-gangsa yang besar. Demikianbejenis-jenispasangcengcengtidakdipergunakan di dalamSemarPagulingan.Instrumen yang memegangperananpentingdalamSemarPagulinganialahTrompong.TromponglebihmenitikberatkanpenggantianmelodisulingdalamGambuh yang dituangkankedalam nada yang lebih fix (menentukan). Gending-gending yang dimainkandenganmemakaitrompong, biasanyatidakdipergunakanuntukmengiringitari.

Istilahsrutiberasaldaribahasasansekerta yang artinyaadalahkitab-kitabweda( mardiwarsito, 1985 : 539 ). Selainitudalamduniamusikmisalnyadalam music indiadanbali, srutimerupakansebuahterminlogi yang berarti, jarakantaraduabuah nada itudikenaldengannama interval. srutiatau interval mamagangperanan yang sangatpentingdalampepatutandalampelarasan gamelan bali. Untukdapatmengetahuibetapapentingnyaperanansrutiitudalampepatutan gamelan bali, makaakandibahastentang gamelan semarpegulingansaihpitudisingkat (SPSP). Gamelan inimenggunakanlaraspelogtujuh nada (sihpitu), denganbahanbulahdanpenconterbuatdariperunggu. Proses pelarasan gamelan semarpegulingansaihpitu (SPSP) Secaratradisipelarasan gamelan SPSP dilakukanhanyadenganmengandalkankepekaantelingadan musical aesthetic. Olehsebabitupelarasan gamelan haruslahdilakukandenganseksama.Langkahpertama yang dilakukanseorangpande (pembuat gamelan) atautukanglaras gamelan adalahmenentukanpetuding. Petudingberasaldariakar kata “tuding” yang artinyatunjuk.Dengandemikianpetudngatauartinyaadalahpetunjuk.Dalamkaitannyadenganpelarasan gamelan petudingituberartipetunjuk nada.Petudingterbuatdaribambu, terbentuksegiempatpanjangmenyerupaibialhgangsa.Bahan yang dipilihuntukpetudingituadalahjenisbambu yang di baidisebut “tiingsantong” dan “tiingjelepung”.Bahanpetudingituharuslah bamboo yang sudahbenar-benarkeringsebabdenganbambu yang keringinisuarapetuding yang nantinyaakanstabil. Bambu yang keringseringdidapatkandariiga-igadantenggala (bajak).Setelahbahanpetudingdidapatkanlangkah-langkahselanjutnyaadalah, menentukansuaradaripetudingitusendiri.Untuk gamelan SPSP sumberdarisurapetudingitubiasanyadidapatkanmelaluisulinggambuhatauseringjugamenirudari gamelan SPSPyangsudahada.Apabilasuarapetudingitu di ambildari gamelan diambildari gamelan yang sudahada, maka proses inidisebutdenganistilah “nurun”. Dalamhalnurun, seorangpandebiasanyamengandalkankepekaantelinganyasendiri, tanpabantuanalat-alatpengukur nada sepertimisalnyasroboconn.Tahapdalampelarasan Proses dalampelarasan gamelan SPSP dimulaidenganmelaras instrument yang berbilah. Pelarasaninidikerjakanoktaf (pengangkep) demi oktafdenganberpatokanpadapetuding.Instrument pertama yang dilarasadalahjublag instrument inidianggapsebagaititikawaldari gamelan itusendiri.Setelahjublagdapatdilarasdenganbaik, makapelarasanitubisadilanjutkankepengangkep yang lebihrendah, yaitujegogan, ataubisajugakepengangkep yang lebihtinggimulaidarimulaidaripemadeteruskekantil.Perludicatatbahwadalampelarasan gamelan inihendaknyajangandimulaijangan di mulaidripengangkep yang lebihtinggiyaitukantilansebabkantilanitumemilikifrekuensi (getaranper’detik) yang paling tinggidalam gamelan SPSP.

PadazamandahuluSemarPagulinganmerupakan gamelan rekreasiuntukistana raja-raja.Biasanyadimainkanpadawaktu raja-raja akankepraduan (tidur). Gamelan inijugadipergunakanuntukmengiringitariLekodanGandrung yang semuladilakukanolehabdi raja-raja kraton.Tapi, sekarangfungsi gamelan semarpegulingansudahmengalamiperkembanganyaitu :sebagaipengiringupacarayadnya, sebagaitontonanatauhiburanmasyarakat, danpengiringtari-tarian.

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